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Introduction to Computers

Introduction to Computers

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Introduction to Computers

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  1. Introduction to Computers

  2. What is a Computer? An electronic, programmable device that: Accepts data in the form of Input Manipulates that data by Processing Produces results in the form of Output Stores for future use through Storagedevices Slide

  3. Information Processing Cycle Four basic operations: Input Processing Output Storage Slide

  4. Data Vs. Information Computers perform operations comprising the information processing cycle to manipulate data into information and store for future use. Data is a collection of facts, or unprocessed items. Information is the portion of those facts that conveys meaning and is useful to the user. Slide

  5. Hardware Vs. Software • Hardware-the physical components that make up a computer system. Six primary components include: • Software-detailed set of instructions that tells a computer exactly what to do. {aka Computer Program} • Bootingis the process that loads the operating system into RAM (Random Access Memory). Slide

  6. Input Devices Allow you to enter data, programs, commands, and user responses into a computer. • Keyboard-contains keys you press to enter data. • Mouse-pointing device that controls the pointer. • Microphone-a device that converts sound waves into electrical energy to be broadcast, recorded or amplified. • Scanner-light-sensing device that reads printed text and graphics and translates the results into digital form. • Digital Camera-records photographic images, sound and/or video in digital form. Slide

  7. Input Devices Cont’d Graphics/Digitizing Tablet-uses a stylus to sketch drawings or images on surface. Stylus-resembling a pen, uses pressure to input data. Touchpad-controls pointer movements by sliding your fingertip on the pad. Touch Screens –LCD display capable of sensing multiple points of contact.  GameControllers-consist of game pads, joysticks, gloves, steering wheels, trackballs, etc. Slide

  8. System Unit Case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data. The Motherboard is the main circuit board and includes the processor, memory and expansion slots. Slide

  9. System Unit-Breakdown • Processor, aka CentralProcessingUnit(CPU)-is the brain of the computer that interprets and executes the instructions that operate a computer. • Control Unit-interprets the instructions • Arithmetic/Logic Unit-performs the logical and arithmetic processes. • Memory, aka RandomAccessMemory(RAM)- consists of the electronic components that temporarily store instructions waiting to be executed by the processor. Slide

  10. Data Hierarchy The amount of memory in computers is measured in bytes. Terabyte (TB)- one trillion memory locations Gigabyte (GB)-one billion memory locations Megabyte (MB)-one million memory locations Kilobyte (K)-one thousand memory locations Byte-one memory location Slide

  11. Output Devices Make information resulting from processing available for use. Printers-produce a hard copy also called a printout and classified as either ImpactorNonimpact. Monitors-produce a soft copy that visually conveys text, graphics, and video information. Speakers-converts electrical signals into sounds loud enough to be heard at a distance. Projectors-an optical instrument that projects an enlarged image onto a screen. Slide

  12. ImpactOutput Devices-Printers • ImpactPrinters-print by striking an inked ribbon against the paper. • Dot-MatrixPrinter-produces printed images when tiny pins strikean inked ribbon on continuous form paper. Slide

  13. NonImpactOutput Devices-Printers • NonimpactPrinters-form characters by means other than striking a ribbon against paper. • Ink-jetPrinters(DeskJet or Photo Printers)-produce images by using a nozzle that sprays tiny drops of ink onto a page. • LaserPrinters-high-speed, highest- quality printers that form images to be printed from a beam of light focused on a photoconductor drum similar to a copying machine. Slide

  14. Output Devices-Monitors Monitorsare composed of individual picture elements called Pixelsthat form parts of a character or graphic shape on the screen. • FlatPanelMonitors-take up much less desk space. • LiquidCrystalDisplay(LCD)-Monitors use a liquid display crystal, similar to a digital watch, to produce images on the screen. • CathodeRayTube(CRT)-display graphics through technology used in most televisions. Slide

  15. Storage Devices Used to store instructions, data, and information when they are not being used in memory. • Four basic types of storage media include: • MagneticDisks • OpticalDiscs • Tape • MiniatureMobileStorageMedia Slide

  16. Storage Devices-Magnetic Disks Slide Use magnetic particles to store items such as data, instructions, and information on a disk’s surface. • HardDisk-contains one or more inflexible, circular platters that magnetically store data, instructions, and information. • FloppyDisks (Diskette)-inexpensive portable storage medium. • 3.5” only stores 1.44 MB

  17. Formatting a Disk Process of preparing a disk to be read from or written on by dividing the disk into tracks and sectors. Track-a narrow recording band that forms a full circle on the surface of a disk. Sector-pie-shaped storage section, which breaks the tracks into small arcs storing up to 512 bytes of data. Slide

  18. Storage Devices-optical Discs Flat, round, portable storage medium that reads and records data using laser technology. CD-ROM & DVD-ROM(Read-Only Memory)-can read but not write on (record) or erase. CD-R & DVD-R (Recordable)-record on each part only one time but cannot erase. CD-RW& DVD-RW (Rewritable)-erasable optical discs you can write on multiple times. DVDs(DigitalVersatileDiscs) are the highest capacity optical discs capable of storing 4.7-17 GB. Slide

  19. Optical Disc Formats Slide

  20. Storage Devices-Tape Magnetically coated ribbon of plastic housed in a tape cartridge capable of storing large amounts of data at a low cost. Primarily used for long-term storage and Backup. A Backup is a duplicateof a file, program, or disk that you can use incase the original is lost,damaged, or destroyed. Slide

  21. Storage Devices-Miniature mobile storage devices FlashMemoryCards-solid-state media that consist entirely of electronics and contain no moving parts. USBFlashDrive-flash memory storage device that plugs into a USB port on a computer or mobile device. SmartCard-stores data on a thin microprocessor embedded in the card. Slide