Information Tools for USC Pharmacy Students Pam Corley, AHIP, MLIS Eileen Eandi, MLS Adrian Follette, MLIS Joseph Pozdol, MLIS Evans Whitaker, MD, MLIS Norris Medical Library Keck School of Medicine University of Southern California Los Angeles, CA 90089-9130
Introductions • Introduce personnel ASK QUESTIONS! Make this session useful to you • Janis Brown is the liaison to Pharmacy from Norris Medical Library • You may contact any of us if you have questions • We will post this PowerPoint on the website for you to look at if you wish to look at it further (Key ResourcesStudentPharmacyY1.
Handouts • Assignment Questions • Formatting Your Assignment • Submission form • Advanced Ovid Flow Sheet • Pharmacy resources and Norris Library • Evaluation form
Pharmacy Y1 Assignment, due September 10, 2008 • 7 topics, we will assign one • Search using Advanced Ovid • Select 5 relevant articles • Hand in: • Submission form as front page • Printout which includes • Search strategy • Citation and abstract for five articles
Outline for today • Primary literature (another way to say MEDLINE) A. Practice with Advanced Ovid Search • Norris Medical Library home page tour • Pharmacy Resources of Note • Predigested primary literature information sources (AKA Clinical Information Tools) • Other topics as time and interest allow
MEDLINE • MEDLINE a subset of PubMed. • >16 million citations in MEDLINE. • >18 million citations in PubMed. • Difference due to articles not yet indexed or those that never will be as not biomedical • Updated daily • Two major ways to access: • OvidSP to which USC subscribes. • PubMed (free, USC’s version, PubMed@USC includes links to USC holdings).
OvidSP • Navigate to Ovid: Norris homepage Databases tab Ovid MEDLINE. • Sign into training account ovidsp.ovid.com. User: sci001 Password: medical • The training account • Opens is Basic mode • Has no full text links • Opens with Search history and Limits closed • …vs. Norris Library’s version of Ovid
OvidSP • Many Ovid databases • MEDLINE choices are at the top • MEDLINE 1996-2008 and MEDLINE 1950-2008 • Ovid also contains: • EBM sources in the middle of the page. • International Pharmaceutical Abstracts at the bottom. • Set up a free personal account to save searches, receive automatic updates, and annotate articles.
Ovid MEDLINE • Advanced Ovid Search (use for assignment) • powerful, precise search engine • good for thorough, focused searches • learning curve • search methods translate to PubMed • Ovid Basic Search • “Google-like” • “natural language search engine” • use keywords, phrase, or sentence • fast to use • good for a few good articles
Advanced Ovid Search • Enter Concepts one at a time. • MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms are preferred search terms. • MeSH is a standardized vocabulary of the NLM used to index MEDLINE articles. • With each MeSH concept decide on Explode, Focus, and Subheadings. • AND, OR are used to combine concepts. • A variety of limits may be used to narrow your search. HINT: Place limits as the last step in formulating your search.
What is Advanced Ovid good for? • Advanced Ovid allows precise searching at the cost of increased time and difficulty • Good for leaving “no stone unturned”, as when preparing for scholarly presentation. • Limitations: Advanced Ovid depends on MeSH terms. New drugs, procedures, devices, and concepts are likely not in the MeSH database (yet). Other strategies are needed to find articles about these topics.
In-class demonstration 1 • Is Tylenol an effective treatment for migraine?
In-class 1 Strategy • Concept 1: migraine • Explode • Focus • Subheading: drug therapy • Concept 2: Tylenol • Explode • Subhead: therapeutic use • Combine:1 and 2 • Limits: humans, English
In-class demonstration 2 • Find studies that discuss the side effects of statins.
In-class 2 Strategy • Concept 1: statins • Explode • Focus • Subhead: adverse effects (toxicity, poisoning) • Limits: humans, English
In-class demonstration 3 • Is it safe for heart patients to take Viagra?
In-class strategy 3 • Concept 1: heart disease • Explode • Focus • Concept 2: Viagra (as keyword) OR with generic name sildenafil (as keyword) • Combine:1 and 2 • Limits: humans, English
Questions to try on your own in-class 1 • Can secondhand smoke cause lung cancer?
On your own strategy 1 • Concept 1: lung cancer • Explode • Focus • Subheading: etiology, chemically induced? • Concept 2:second hand smoke • Subhead: adverse effects • Combine:1 and 2 • Limits: humans, English
Questions to try on your own in-class 2 • Should Advil be used to treat children with migraines?
On your own strategy 2 • Concept 1: Advil • Explode • Subhead: therapeutic use (adverse effects?) • Concept 2: migraine • Explode • Focus • Subheading: drug therapy • Combine:1 and 2 • Limits: humans, English, children
Questions to try on your own in-class 3 • Is Zyrtec or Claritin more effective in treating seasonal allergies? What about Allegra?
On your own strategy 3 • Concept 1: Seasonal allergic rhinitis • Explode • Focus • Subhead: drug therapy • Concept 2: Claritin • Concept 3: Zyrtec • Subheading for 2, 3: drug therapy • Concept 4: Allegra (fexofenadine) • Combine:1 and (2 or 3 or 4) Also can do 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 • Limits: humans, English
Ovid Basic Search Tips • Search engine translates your words (“mapping”). • No need to separate concepts. • You may apply limits • Basic searches typically yield > 500 hits. • The “good stuff” in the first 20-30 hits. • If nothing within 20-30 hits, • reword your question or, • use Advanced Ovid Search.
OvidSP Take Home Messages • Use Basic to inform Advanced. • Minimize use of subheadings and limits. • Rule of thumb is to “focus” only one concept (usually the disease or condition) and “explode” all concepts in a search. • Apply limits as the last step. • In Advanced mode always attempt to translate your terms into MeSH headings.
Norris Medical Library • Use the proxy server. (You can see it at https://libproxy.usc.edu/login ). There is no need to use VPN. • Log in with USC email information; user name (email up to @) and password. • Use Norris Library home page as your starting point when searching for biomedical information -- Bookmark it!
The Norris HomepageHighlights…Moving from Left to Right • Journals • All USC eJournals – includes all electronic journals in the USC system • Databases • Ovid MEDLINE • PubMed @USC – don’t go directly to pubmed.gov as lose links to USC holdings • Key Resources for: Students Pharmacy – Portal to commonly used resources • Catalogs • HELIX -- Norris Medical and Wilson Dental Libraries (try goodman and gilman) • ADVOCAT -- USC Law Library • HOMER -- All other USC libraries • QuickLinks-- many common resources listed in dropdown menu. • HELP – Email, Phone, and IM connections to medical librarians. We can help with devising searches, finding information sources, troubleshooting, etc. IM and phone hours are M-F 9-5. There is one working day turnaround on email questions. • SEARCH
QuickLinks • Clinical information tools • UpToDate – not off campus • ACP Pier • Essential Evidence Plus • Pharmacy References • Epocrates • Lexi-Comp Online • Databases • Ovid MEDLINE - has much more than MEDLINE • PubMed@USC - don’t use pubmed.gov
QuickLinks 2 • DocRetriever – Interlibrary loan system of Norris Library. Set up free account, the system is “self-serve”. Charges for items from libraries outside USC -- $11 for book or article. • Multi eBook Search – Use to find information in multiple electronic sources simultaneously. Easy to use and searches >700 electronic books simultaneously!
Access Pharmacy-- contents of 22 books searchable by topic or organ system, self assessment, a few videos, drug monographs (from Gold Standard), etc. • International Pharmaceutical Abstracts– in Ovid, produced by American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, covers 1970 to current • Lexi-Comp -- has ASHF data as well • Epocrates -- clinician-oriented drug database • Statref A and B -- access to a variety of relevant books • ChemAbstracts through SciFinder Scholar – can search for literature, chemical structures. Download required • MicroMedex – multiple pharmaceutical databases
Clinical Information Tools • UpToDate – fast, easy, good quality. Is it really evidence-based? Or is it expert opinion? Do we care?– QuickLinks. Great for background information. • ACP Pier – QuickLinks. Similar content to UTD but not as nice an interface. • Essential Evidence Plus – “InfoRetriever” until recently – QuickLinks. Same comments as ACP Pier • Try a search in ACP Pier, Essential Evidence, and Clinical Evidence. Call out if you need help or have questions. • Topics (if you need them): • Suicide risk with SSRI’s in teens. • Steroid injection for lateral epicondylitis. • Calcium channel blockers for migraine prophylaxis.
Evidence Based Practice Resources • Clinical Evidence – “Search NML” for “clinical evidence” • Ovid EBM databases – Access via DatabasesOvid select a database. Remember Change Databases and Open And Re-execute to speed looking through Systematic Reviews, DARE, ACP Journal Club –try a search with concepts “fluoxetine, suicide, adolescents”. (usc.edu/nml/ovid/) • National Guidelines Clearinghouse (guidelines.gov) – try “fibromyalgia” • TRIP database (tripdatabase.com) -- try “ankle sprain” notice patient handouts and images tabs • SUMSearch (sumsearch.edu) – try “irritable bowel syndrome”
Search Tips for Clinical Information Tools and EBP/EBM • Keep your searches simple. • Be prepared to reword your search—there is no mapping of terms to a standardized vocabulary in these resources, unlike OvidMEDLINE or PubMed.
PubMed@USC • Databases tab at Norris homepage • Insures full text links through FindIt@USC. • Open PubMed@USC. • I will only mention three features today. • Single Citation Matcher. • Find Similar. • MyNCBI • Search process is similar to OvidSP Advanced. Use MeSH terms, enter concepts separately, combine concepts, apply limits. • Sign up for MyNCBI -- save searches, collections of articles, and have new articles resulting from saved searches emailed to you on a user-determined schedule.
PubMed • “Single Citation Matcher” any 1-2 pieces of information will allow you to find a citation. Usually will have links to USC holdings. • “Related Articles” is a very effective way of finding closely related articles. Ovid has the equivalent function. It does not work as well. • MyNCBI personalized account in which you can save searches and articles.
Sign Up for MyNCBI • Do this now! • For those of you who have not already done so – this is free, easy, and no associated spam. • With MyNCBI you may save searches and article collections. If you so designate, your saved searches are rerun periodically. New articles on your topic are emailed or RSS’d to you.
Tips • GoogleScholar limits searches to scholarly sites • Configure GS in Scholar Preferences so that USC library holdings are linked (for personal computer) • GS is good for preliminary exploration of an unfamiliar topic. Yields good terms to use in more valid and authoritative search engines. • GS will also occasionally find full text of an article in a journal to which USC does not subscribe.
Scirus.com • A search engine devoted to scientific websites. Easy to use. Higher overall quality of sites than GS. My opinion… • “Independent” product of publishing giant Elsevier. I have not seen evidence of bias. • Worth a look when exploring a topic.
Tips • Norris as home page, use proxy server. • Sign up for a free account with Ovid to save searches and annotate articles. • Sign up for a free MyNCBI account, you can save PubMed searches, collect articles, and have alerts emailed to you about new articles from saved searches. • Sign up for free eTOCS for those journals whose contents you want to scan regularly. • Sign up for free Web-of-Knowledge/EndNote accounts. This is a nice way to store, organize, and use citations found in your research. Consider Connotea as well. • Consider classes at your local library in PubMed, OvidSP, EndNote, etc.
Summary • We have attempted to provide: • Norris Medical Library basics. • OvidMEDLINE update and usage information. • Miscellaneous information: GoogleScholar and Scirus.com. • Some time to practice with the resources. • Thanks for your attention!