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EQUINE REPRODUCTION. BOOK BOOKING FEES STUD FEE FOAL GUARANTEE Live Foal Return Color. WET/DRY CARE BREEDER Thoroughbred Other breeds DEATH & SALES CLAUSE CHUTE FEE. TERMINOLOGY. Stallion Physiology. Sperm Production. Sperm Output and Production is influenced by: Season

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terminology
BOOK

BOOKING FEES

STUD FEE

FOAL GUARANTEE

Live Foal

Return

Color

WET/DRY CARE

BREEDER

Thoroughbred

Other breeds

DEATH & SALES CLAUSE

CHUTE FEE

TERMINOLOGY
sperm production
Sperm Production
  • Sperm Output and Production is influenced by:
    • Season
    • Testicular size
    • Age
    • Frequency of ejaculation
    • Behavior
number of sperm depends on
Number of Sperm Depends On:
  • Seasonal Influences (Photoperiod)
    • Effected Areas
      • Ejaculate volume
      • Sperm numbers
      • Total sperm/ejaculate
      • Sperm motility
      • Willingness to breed
      • Mounts before breeding
      • Scrotal size
      • Testosterone production
mare anatomy
Mare Anatomy
  • Vulva
  • Vagina
  • Cervix
  • Uterus
  • Oviducts
  • Ovaries

Left Ovary

Cervix

Vagina

Oviduct

Left Uterine

Horn

Uterine Body

mares
TERMS

Anestrus

Diestrus

Estrous

Estrus

MARE CLASSIFICATION

Pregnant

Open

Barren

Maiden

Wet

Dry

MARES
the open mare
The Open Mare
  • Evaluate reproductive history
  • Establish the time of year to breed
  • Mare Plan:
    • Diagnose possible problems
    • Implement problem management
    • Establish estrus calendar
photoperiod effect
Photoperiod Effect
  • Reproductive activity in spring is stimulated by an increasing photoperiod
  • Mechanism
    • Alteration of hormone secretion by the pineal gland and hypothalamus
slide11

J F M A M J J A S O N D

Increasing day length

Decreasing day length

Receptors in eye

Neuropathway

Neuropathway

Pineal gland

Decreasing melatonin

Increasing melatonin

Hypothalamus

Increasing GnRH

Decreasing GnRH

Anterior pituitary

Decreasing

gonadotropins

Increasing

gonadotropins

Ovaries

transition period
Transition Period
  • Increased photoperiod stimulates the hypothalamus and pituitary
  • Pituitary hormones (especially FSH) induce follicular development
transition
Transition
  • 1-3 waves of follicles develop & regress
  • Estrogens produced by developing follicles
  • Irregular/prolonged estrus exhibited
  • 1 follicle eventually ovulates
  • Thereafter, mares ovulate at ~21-day intervals
slide14

21-day estrous cycle

  • Estrus 5-7 d
  • Diestrus 14-16 d
estrus
Follicular Development &

Ovulation

Anterior Pituitary – FSH - follicular growth

Pituitary – LH – maturation of follicle & ovulation

Follicles reach 20-25 mm in diameter, secrete estrogen.

Estrus
prediction of ovulation
Prediction of Ovulation
  • Number of days in heat
  • Growth rate of largest follicle
    • Average 3-5 mm/day
  • Size of largest follicle
  • Softness of preovulatory follicle
  • Ultrasound image
diestrus
Diestrus

Corpus Luteum Formation

  • Corpus luteum - secretion of progesterone.
  • Progesterone - responsible for keeping the mare out of heat and for maintaining pregnancy.

Prostaglandin Release

  • Prostaglandin (PGF) - released from the uterus of a non-pregnant mare 14-16 days after ovulation
postpartum estrus
Postpartum Estrus
  • Foal Heat
  • Fertile as compared to other species.
  • Breeding may be necessary to maintain the 12 mo. Foaling interval.
  • May be necessary to back up foaling.
signs of estrus
Signs of Estrus
  • Most consistent
    • Elevated tail raise
    • Winking
  • Other supporting signs
    • Leaning
    • Squatting
    • Standing still
    • Urinating
manipulation methods
Manipulation Methods
  • Artificial lighting
  • Shortening Late Transition
  • Inducing Ovulation
  • Estrus synchronization
  • Estrus Synchronization & Ovulation Induction
progesterone or related compounds
Progesterone or related compounds
  • Regumate – most common
  • Normalization of estrus
  • Regulation of estrus
  • Estrus synchronization
  • Long-term suppression of estrus
  • Delay foal heat
  • Pregnancy maintenance
pgf 2 lutalayse or estrumate
PGF2Lutalayse or Estrumate
  • Shorten the interval between estrous periods
  • Treatment of a maintained corpus luteum
  • After foal heat
  • Estrous synchronization with prostaglandins
breeding methods
Breeding Methods
  • Pasture Breeding
  • Hand Breeding
  • Artificial Insemination
    • Fresh semen
    • Cooled, shipped semen
    • Frozen semen
cooled shipped semen
ADVANTAGES

Cost

Genetics

Disease

DISADVANTAGES

Cost

Technology/management

Stallion variability

Common Problems

Inability to obtain semen

Poor quality semen

Reordering semen

Failure to predict ovulation

Cooled Shipped Semen
frozen semen
Frozen Semen
  • Success of Frozen Semen
    • Fertility of stallion’s semen
    • Fertility of the mare
    • Skill of the veterinarian/technician
  • Maximum Success
    • Client communication
    • Choose ideal candidate
    • History of stallion
embryo transfer
Embryo Transfer
  • Synchronization of donor and recipient mare
  • Embryo flushing
  • Embryo transfer procedure
ten factors influencing pregnancy pregnancy loss per cycle
TEN FACTORS INFLUENCING PREGNANCY & PREGNANCY LOSS PER CYCLE
  • MARE AGE
  • BARREN REPRODUCTIVE STATUS
  • EARLY BREEDING DATE
  • LATE BREEDING DATE
  • BREEDING FREQUENCY
  • PROSTAGLANDIN FACTOR
  • UTERINE CULTURE & CYTOLOGY
  • EFFECT OF SEMEN EXTENDER
  • POST-BREEDING ANTIBIOTIC INFUSIONS
  • TWINS
pregnancy evaluation
Ultrasound, 14-18 days

ID twins

ID placental development

Re-evaluate, 40 days

Monitor Placental function & fetal growth

Pregnancy Evaluation
gestation length
Gestation Length
  • Normal: 335-342 days
growth curve
GROWTH CURVE

CR in cm

Gestation age in days

late pregnancy
Late Pregnancy
  • Abdomen greatly enlarged
  • Ventral edema
  • Mammary gland enlargement – 2-4 wk
  • Gluteal muscles relax – 7-10 d
  • Teats fill with milk – 4-7 d
  • Waxing of teat ends – 1-4 d
  • Vulva soft & relaxed – 1-2 d
stages of parturition
Stages of Parturition
  • Stage 1
    • Onset: initial uterine contractions
    • End: rupture of chorioallantois (water bag)
  • Stage 2
    • Onset: rupture of chorioallantois
    • End: delivery of fetus
stages of parturition36
Stages of Parturition
  • Stage 3 (< 3 hrs)
    • Onset: delivery of fetus
    • End: passage of the fetal membranes
foals and immunity
Foals and Immunity
  • Colostrum (first milk) - antibodies
  • 1-2 pts of high quality colostrum
  • If adequate passive transfer occurs there will be over 400-800 mg/dl IgG in foal’s blood
  • Takes ~ 12 hours for all antibodies ingested in colostrum to show up in the blood
key points
Key points
  • First two weeks- lay the groundwork by ensuring adequate colostrum
  • Preventative health program in place
  • Appropriate nutrition
  • Problems must be addressed rapidly when they arise. No time for a “wait and see” attitude