Cultural Patterns. Intercultural Communication By Kiyoko Sueda April 28, 200 ９. Objectives. To understand what cultural patterns are, and what do they do to our life. To understand the cultural patterns proposed by E. T. Hall and G. Hofstede. ( One of the most frequently used taxonomies )
April 28, 200９
Question 1:Compare the class in Japan and that of another country.
Question2: Compare a couple of classes you took last semester.
Question1: Can social superiority be obtained through birth, age, good deeds, material achievement?
Question2: What obligations and responsibilities do people have to their families, neighbors, employers, employees, etc.?
Question1: Does the self reside in the individual or in the group to which the individual belongs?
Question1: Are people in control of, subjugated by, or living in harmony with the forces of nature?
Question1: How should time be valued and understood?
Question2: Is time linear or cyclical?
e.g., communication in a long-term relationship
e.g., communication via computers
Question1: What about Japan?
1. High power distance cultures tend to be authoritarian and vertical in structure.
2. Low power distance cultures tend to minimize differences in age, gender, generation and individual differences are encouraged.
*Please see PDI in Table 5.2 in p. 118
The more severe climate a culture has, the more technological inventions to solve its threats are needed for survival.
The larger the society is, the more centralized political power is necessary.
The more unequally wealth is distributed, the less tendency for people to question a large power distance.
1) To reduce the level of ambiguity and uncertainty.
2)Not to tolerate deviant behaviors.
3) To ensure security and certainty through an extensive set of rules, regulations, and rituals.
Examples: Greece, Guatemala, Portugal, and Uruguay
1) To cope with the stress and anxiety that uncertainty causes.
2) To minimize the number of rules and rituals governing social conducts.
3) To tolerate socially deviant behaviors and try new things.
Examples: Denmark, Jamaica, Ireland, Singapore
* See Table 5.3 UAI in p. 121
1. Horizontal individualism: the self is valued, and the individual is equal to others in status.
2. Vertical individualism: the self is valued, but is different from others in status.
* See table 5.4 <Individualism index (IDV)> in p. 125.
1. Horizontal collectivism: The self is viewed as a part of an in-group member who is similar to others in status.
2. Vertical collectivism: The self is viewed as a part of an in-group who is different from others in status.
2) the extent to which members prefer “achievement and assertiveness” or “nurturance and social support.”
Examples: Austria, Italy, Japan, Mexico, etc.
*MAS in Table 5.5 in p. 129.
-Chinese civil servant
-Not a religious leader but philosopher as Socrates
-Taught a set of practical principles and ethical rules for everyday life
5 basic kinds of relationship
*leader-follower (justice & loyalty)
*father-son (love & closeness)
*husband-wife (initiative & obedience)
*older brother & younger brother (friendliness & reverence)
*friends (mutual faithfulness)
*The virtues learned in the family are the core part for interacting with others in the society.
*Harmony is sustained through maintaining “face”, or a sense of dignity, self-esteem, and prestige.