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Classroom Control. A Very Important Topic Too Often Neglected Too Often Needed. Skills Seen as Important by H.S. Physics Teachers . Data from AIP Pub. No. R-282.19 1996 Initial Employment Follow-Up. Four Management Styles (a).

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classroom control
Classroom Control
  • A Very Important Topic
  • Too Often Neglected
  • Too Often Needed
skills seen as important by h s physics teachers
Skills Seen as Important by H.S. Physics Teachers

Data from AIP Pub. No. R-282.19 1996 Initial Employment Follow-Up

four management styles a
Four Management Styles (a)
  • The authoritative style is characterized by behavioral principles, high expectations of appropriate behavior, clear statements about why certain behaviors are acceptable and others not acceptable, and warm student-teacher relationships.
  • The authoritarian style tends to be characterized by numerous behavioral regulations, is often seen as punitive and restrictive, and students have neither a say in their management, nor are they seen to need explanations; the teacher's character is sometimes perceived as being cold, even unfriendly.
four management styles b
Four Management Styles (b)
  • The permissive style is characterized by a lack of teacher involvement, the environment is non-punitive, there are few demands on students, and there is a lot of freedom.
  • The indulgent style presents an environment where there are no demands on the student of any sort, and the students are actively supported in their efforts to seek their own ends using any reasonable means.
style characterizations
Style Characterizations

The authoritative style encourages independence, is warm and nurturing, control occurs along with explanation, and adolescents are permitted to express their views. The authoritative approach is the best form of classroom management style because it is the one most closely associated with appropriate student behaviors.

After Baumrind, 1971, Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology Monographs, 4(1). For details, see

fundamental principles
Fundamental Principles
  • The first principle of classroom management is, “Be FIRM, FAIR, FRIENDLY, and FOCUSED.”
  • The second principle is, “Always use the minimum amount of authority that will achieve the end.”
  • You might hear some teachers state, "Don't smile until Christmas." This does not mean that you shouldn't be friendly -- warm, concerned, and caring.
  • What it does mean is that if you're going to establish and maintain good discipline, you must do so from the very beginning.
  • It's easier to "lighten up" than it is to "throw the clamps on" at some future date.
  • You can be fair, friendly, and focused with students and at the same time be firm in the enforcement of the rules and consequences.
  • Establish General Principles, Not Fixed Rules.
    • Concentrate on a few simple principles that have a number of potential corollaries (e.g., rules).
    • Help your students understand the meaning of the principles and the consequences for violators.
    • If possible, have students help formulate these policies.
  • Use Consistent Enforcement.
    • Follow through on your policies by consistently applying them to violations according to your plan.
    • This is especially important at the beginning of the year when some students will test the system to see what will happen.
  • Provide Encouragement.
    • Show students that you care when they behave acceptably.
    • Tell them what specific behavior you appreciated.
  • Show Understanding.
    • Some unruly students suffer from family discord (divorce, alcohol problems, abuse, low self-esteem, and emotional problems).
    • Sometimes having private personal talks with students can help you change from being a disciplinarian to being a helping friend.
  • Don’t waste students’ time.
  • Though students tend to waste a lot of time themselves, they prefer to do it on their own terms.
  • Teachers must keep their students engaged if they are to minimize classroom disruptions.
  • Come to class prepared. Teachers who lack direction and fumble invite disciplinary problems.
  • Carefully prepare all transitions.
use a minimum of authority
Use a Minimum of Authority
  • “Tread softly, but carry a big stick.”T. Roosevelt
  • Don’t threaten something you can’t carry out.
  • Don’t escalate situations needlessly.
  • Maintain your reserves.
  • Avoid confrontations, especially in front of other students.
  • Avoid lose-lose situations.
  • Excess use of authority will promote those very situations that they are supposed to diffuse.
  • Consider peer classroom management techniques.
sample corollaries
Sample Corollaries
  • Never use sarcasm, it's beneath you and may return to you.
  • Never argue with a class. "I am the teacher and I determine what happens in this class." Education is not a democracy.
  • Feel free to call on students at random; this will keep them on their toes.
  • Refer to 50 COROLLARIES TO CONTROL MEASURES for additional suggestions.
general procedures
General Procedures
  • Set out classroom principles at the start.
  • React immediately to disruptions.
  • Deal with behavior problems with the mildest intervention that will work.
  • Resolve minor problems before they become major problems.
  • Maintain momentum in the lesson.
  • Know your limits.
  • Remember your ABCs…
remember your abcs
Remember Your ABCs
  • Antecedent - Behavior - Consequences
  • Too often, in order to change behaviors attention is focused on consequences. This can often be ineffective.
  • Most times it is more helpful to focus on the antecedent (e.g., failing to turn in homework)
    • Ask question why student not turning in homework.
    • The are many reasons why student might not be turning in homework (conditions at home, lack of sleep, excess time spent working, etc.).
    • Come to a mutual understanding with student about what must be done to correct the situation.
dealing with confrontation
Dealing with Confrontation
  • Concentrate on the student’s agenda:
    • use open-ended questions
    • use confirmatory paraphrase
    • use leading paraphrase
  • Concentrate on overcoming resistance:
    • use positive phrasing (e.g., use “I” phrases rather than “you”
    • show empathy
    • provide support
    • give reasonable approval
  • Concentrate on problem solving:
    • use problem-solving inquiry
    • come to a shared decision if possible
classroom principles should be based upon
Classroom Principles Should be Based Upon:
  • Respect for the rights of others
    • education
    • safety
    • ownership
    • civil
  • Respect for school property
warning signs of trouble
Warning Signs of Trouble
  • Troublesome students are:
    • less likely to live with both parents.
    • more likely to be in trouble with police.
    • less likely to make good grades.
    • more likely to be a member of a gang.
levels of disciplinary action
Levels of Disciplinary Action
  • Public responses
  • Private responses
  • Detention
  • Consultation with parents
  • Removal from the classroom
  • Specialized programs
  • Suspension
  • Expulsion
important caveats
Important Caveats
  • Know your rights
  • Know your limitations
  • Know to whom to refer
  • Know with whom to confer
  • Don’t take it personally
  • Don’t get angry
  • Don’t get emotional