A (Quick) Historical Panorama of Information Technologies - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

sandra_john
a quick historical panorama of information technologies n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
A (Quick) Historical Panorama of Information Technologies PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
A (Quick) Historical Panorama of Information Technologies

play fullscreen
1 / 43
Download Presentation
A (Quick) Historical Panorama of Information Technologies
384 Views
Download Presentation

A (Quick) Historical Panorama of Information Technologies

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. A (Quick) Historical Panorama of Information Technologies Lionel Brunie National Institute of Applied Sciences (INSA) LIRIS Laboratory/DRIM Team – UMR CNRS 5205 Lyon, France http://liris.cnrs.fr/lionel.brunie

  2. Agenda • Back to (pre-)History • A Quick Look at Cutting-Edge IC Technologies • Super Computing • Large Scale Computing: Grid and Cloud Computing • Mobile, Ubiquitous and Pervasive Computing • The Internet of (Any-, Every-)Thing(s) • How all this has happened? • Technological Evolutions • Software Evolutions Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama

  3. A short history of computers and IT… 60 years ago… Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama

  4. A short history of computers and IT… 25 years ago… Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama

  5. A short history of computers and IT… Today… Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama

  6. A short history of computers and IT… Tomorrow ? Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama

  7. A short history of computers and IT… Tomorrow ? Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama

  8. A short history of computers and IT… Tomorrow ? Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama

  9. A short history of computers and IT… Tomorrow ? • Internet of Anything? • Internet of Everything? Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama

  10. A Quick Look at Cutting Edge IT Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama

  11. Let’s have a look at cutting edge IT • Super Computing • Grid and Cloud Computing • Mobile, Ubiquitous and Pervasive Computing • The Internet of Things and Cyber-Physical Systems Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama

  12. Super ComputingFrom Vector Machines to Clusters Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama

  13. Old times • Basic ideas • A super computer is like a Ferrari → use specific components • Super computing is like F1 or WRG→ adapt to the application scenario • Vector Computer (Cray) • Database Computer • An alternative idea: Super SIMD (Connection Machines) • Incredible creativity in architecture and network design A Cray-2 Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama

  14. 2015… The Tianhe-2 (Milky Way-2) Ranked 1st in the top500 list of the most “powerful” (computing intensive) computers (since June 2013) Ranked 6th in the graph500 list of the most “powerful” (data intensive processing) computers (June 2013) Ranked 32nd in the green500 list of the most energy efficient computer (June 2013) China (National University of Defense Technology) Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama 14

  15. 2015… The Tianhe-2 (Milky Way-2) Rmax = 33862 (i.e., 33,9 Pflops) – Rpeak = 54902 (computing efficiency : 61,7 %) 3,120,000 cores – Memory: 1.375 PB – Disk: 12,4 PB –fat-tree based Interconnection Network 16000 computer nodes 1 node = 2 Intel (12 cores) Ivy Bridge Xeon + 3 (57 cores) Xeon Phi co-procs + 88GB memory shared by the Ivy Bridges procs + 8 GB memory shared by the Xeon Phi chips Power:17,8 MW (1,9 Tflops/kW – 1,9 Gflops/W … only!) « Tianhe-2 operation for 1 hour is equivalent to 1.3 billion people calculator operating one thousand years » (best-news.us – assertion not checked) Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama 15

  16. 2015 #2… The Titan (Cray XK7) Ranked 2nd in the top500 list (1st in Nov. 2012) 299008 cores – Memory: 710 TB – Cray Gemini Interconnect 18688 Opteron 6274 16 cores 2.200GHz + 18,688 Nvidia Tesla K20X GPUs Rmax = 17590 – Rpeak = 27112 (computing efficiency : 65 %) Power: 8.2 MW… only! Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama 16

  17. Supercomputing… A Quick Look at the Web • Top500.org • performance development • logarithmic progression! (x10 in 3years) • clusters, clusters (86%)! • 51% in industry • max power efficiency: 5,3 Gflops/W • #500: 153 TFlops! – Total : 309 Pflops • poster Top500 • Graph500.org • BlueGene++ • Green500.org and GreenGraph500 • List • max: 5,3 Gflops/W • #1 green500 = #168 top500 (317-594 Tflops) • #1 top500 = #57 green500 (2GFlops/W) Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama

  18. Large Scale Computing: the GridResource Sharing and CooperativeComputing in Large-Scale Dynamic Virtual Organizations Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama

  19. Grid Computing… The LCG Architecture Tier-0 Trigger and Data Acquisition System 10 Gbps links Optical Private Network (to almost all sites) Tier-1 General Purpose/Academic/Research Network Tier-2 From F. Malek – LCG FRance Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama

  20. Grid Computing: Applications • High energy & nuclear physics • Simulation • Earth observation, climate modeling • Geophysics, earthquake modeling • Fluids, aerodynamic design • Pollutant dispersal scenarios • Astronomy- Digital sky surveys: modern telescopes produce over 10 Petabytes per year (upto 30 TB per day)! • Molecular genomics • Chemistry and biochemistry • Financial applications • Medical images • … Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama

  21. Large Scale Computing: the CloudBusiness-centric Large-Scale Distributed ComputingEverything as a Service Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama

  22. Cloud Computing • “A large-scale distributed computing paradigm that is driven by economies of scale, in which a pool of abstracted, virtualized, dynamically-scalable, managed computing power, storage, platforms, and services are delivered on demand to external customers over the Internet” (Foster at al.) • SalesForces, Amazon, IBM, Google, Microsoft, Backblaze… • Everything as a service • Infrastructure as a service • Platform as a service • Software as a service • Behind the scene: some kind of a (proprietary) grid + virtualization++ Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama

  23. Mobile/Ubiquitous/Pervasive ComputingA Focus on the User Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama

  24. Mobile/Ubiquitous/Pervasive Computing • Mobile communications have freed the user from the Internet plug • 3G/4G mobile Internet is as faster as Internet-at-work and Internet-at-home • Ubiquity, i.e., Internet-everywhere, is a reality (at least in Western countries) • A dramatic social (and business) change! • A still-open issue: context-awareness • what is your device, what are the network conditions? • where are you? • what are you doing right now and in the near future? • what are your preferences? • Who are your friends? • … Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama

  25. Applications of Ubi./ Perv. Computing Sensor networks (smart dust) Home networks Patient monitoring (personal area networks) Emergency management / battlefield / borders monitoring Museums and pervasive buildings Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANET) / MANET Alert management (parking, kids, etc.) Supply chain U-Society People to People (P2P): Facebook on your cell phone People to Object (P2O): IoT platforms Geopositioned Services: App Store Do-IoT-Yourself: Arduino / Raspberry Pi / Beaglebone - Fab Lab ? … Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama 25

  26. The Internet of ThingsWhen (Smart) Things Meets Internet Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama

  27. The « Internet of Things (IoT) is […] a dynamic global network infrastructure with self configuring capabilities based on standard and interoperable communication protocols where physical and virtual ‘things’ have identities, physical attributes, and virtual personalities and use intelligent interfaces, and are seamlessly integrated into the information network. In the IoT, ‘things’ are expected to become active participants in business, information and social processes where they are enabled to interact and communicate among themselves and with the environment by exchanging data and information ‘sensed’ about the environment, while reacting autonomously to the ‘real/physical world’s events » (CERP-IoT) The Internet of Things: Definition Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama 27

  28. Applications of the Internet of Things IoT platforms yet exist: xively (ex-cosm, ex-pachube), sen.se, etc. Machine To Machine (M2M) / Object To Object (O2O) the never lasting intelligent fridge ? smart maintenance « Intelligent » sensors networks smart factory ITS and Smart car … What place for humans? Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama 28

  29. Key words Identity / Personality Autonomy Interaction / Environment Communication / Global Network A philosophical approach: Spimes (Bruce Sterling, 2004)? A promise with no future? A nightmare? A dream? The true future? The Internet of Things Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama 29

  30. A Universal Network of Things ? From readwrite.com Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama 30

  31. An Infinity of Networks of Things From readwrite.com Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama 31

  32. Recipe: pour sensors/actuators, add some monitoring and control systems, add some analytics and “intelligence”, if you like add the user, mix all together: you get a CPS Ancestors: embedded systems New dimension: notion of network  sensor network/IoT Large scale Applications: Industry 4.0, sensor networks, critical systems (e.g., air traffic) Cyber-Physical Systems (1/2) Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama 32

  33. Cyber-Physical Systems (2/2) From: IMS Center Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama 33

  34. How all this has happened? Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama

  35. Technological Evolutions • Large bandwidth communications • Optical fiber • 3G, 4G, 4G+, WiMax • WiFi Direct • Low power local communications • NFC • Zigbee, Bluetooth… • « Universal » identification • RFID - Electronic Product Code (EPC) – EPCGlobalNetwork – Object Naming Service (ONS) • IETF Host Identity Protocol (HIP – RFC 4423-5201 ) • Geopositioning • GPS/Galileo • GSM Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama

  36. Technological Evolutions (Cont’d) • Supercomputing • Parallel supercomputers (1- Tianhe-2 - 34 Pflops) • Super-clusters/clouds (Microsft = 1 million of servers (July’13) ; Amazon 1.5-2 millions? Google 2+ millions? Soon 10 millions?) • Super storage • Key: ~GB • Disk: ~TB • Data Center: ~PB • Micro-Nano technologies • Sensors – Sensor networks • “Things” • Convergence digital camera – telephone – laptop → smartphone Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama

  37. Software Evolutions • Services – SOA • Object  Service / Service  Object (Everything as a Service) • Social networks • E-Services • Mobility (M-services) “All digital, any where, any time” Era Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama

  38. Back to Ubiquitous/Pervasive Computing Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama 38

  39. Ubiquitous and Pervasive Computing… The Vision of a Calm Technology • « The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it » • [The objective of pervasive computing is to ] “ … make a computer so imbedded, so fitting, so natural, that we use it without even thinking about it.” • “Ubiquitous (pervasive) computing is roughly the opposite of virtual reality. Where virtual reality puts people inside a computer-generated world, ubiquitous computing forces the computer to live out here in the world with people.” • « A new way of thinking about computers in the world, one that takes into account the natural human environment and allows the computers themselves to vanish in the background » Mark Weiser, Xerox PARC, 1991- Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama

  40. [M. Satyanarayanan, 2001] Pervasive computing environment = « one saturated with computing and communication capability, yet so gracefully integrated with users that it becomes ‘a technology that disappears’ » So: “Smart” spaces “Invisibility” and transparency Scalability Ubiquitous and Pervasive Computing… The Vision of a Calm Technology Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama 40

  41. The « object-subject » is actor (a first-class citizen) of the “system” / of the Future smart objects / smart everything active objects “the” cloud « Intelligence » is, at first, the « network » i.e., the ability to exchange information / communicate « Intelligence », is also the ability to self-adapt to the user profile and the context (« context awareness »), “to weave” into the environment « Ego » is part of the context « Intelligence », finally, is the ability to organize: autonomously (autonomic computing, self healing…) spontaneously Multi-Scale Ubiquitous Ego-Centric Digital Ecosystem User-Centric Cloud-IoT Some Key Ideas for an Holistic Vision Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama 41

  42. A Partial Conclusion • An incredible change! • A digital world (and digital life) • An (almost) unlimited power of processing, storage, communication • Unlimited opportunities of new applications • But a coined in the 60’s client-server way of thinking! • And strong concerns about privacy • (A Highway to) Hell or Eden? Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama

  43. What IT world do you want to build ? Master Course, Lyon, 2015/2016 - Historical Panorama