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Chapter 8. Biogeography. Why Were Introductions of New Species into Europe So Popular Long Ago?. Biogeography: The large scale geographic pattern in the distribution of species, and the causes and history of this distribution. Wallace’s Realms: Biotic Provinces. Realm:

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chapter 8

Chapter 8

Biogeography

Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e

why were introductions of new species into europe so popular long ago
Why Were Introductions of New Species into Europe So Popular Long Ago?
  • Biogeography:
    • The large scale geographic pattern in the distribution of species, and the causes and history of this distribution

Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e

wallace s realms biotic provinces
Wallace’s Realms: Biotic Provinces
  • Realm:
    • Major biogeographic regions of Earth that are based upon fundamental features of the plants and animals found in those regions
  • Taxa:
    • Categories that identify groups of living organisms based upon evolutionary relationships or similarity of characteristics (ex: species, families, orders)
  • Biotic Provinces:
    • A geographical region (realm) inhabited by a characteristic set of taxa, bounded by barriers that prevent the spread of those distinctive kinds of life to other regions.

Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e

slide4

The main biogeographic realms for animals are based on genetic factors .

Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e

slide5

The major vegetation realms are also based on genetic factors

Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e

biomes
Biomes
  • A biome is a kind of ecosystem. Similar environments provide similar opportunities for life and similar constraints.
    • Rainforest
    • Grasslands
    • Desserts

Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e

slide7
Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e

slide8
Convergent Evolution

The process by which species evolve in different places of times and, although they have different genetic heritages, develop similar external forms and structures as a result of adaptation to similar environments

Ex) shapes of sharks

Divergent Evolution

Organisms with the same ancestral genetic heritage migrate to different habitats and evolve into species with different external forms and structures, but continue to use the same type of habitats

Ex) Ostrich

Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e

slide9
Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e

geographic patterns of life within a continent
Geographic Patterns of Life within a Continent

Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e

slide11
Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e

island biogeography
IslandBiogeography
  • Theory of Island Biogeography
    • Islands have fewer species than continents
    • The smaller the island, the fewer the species
    • The farther the island from the continent, the fewer the species
  • Adaptive Radiation:
    • The process that occurs when a species enters a new habitat that has unoccupied niches and evolves into a group of new species, each adapted to one of these niches. Darwin’s Finches
  • Ecological Island:
    • An area that is biologically isolated so that a species occurring within the area rarely mixes with any other population of the same species

Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e

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Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e

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Species found on Caribbean Islands

Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e

earth s biomes
Earth’s Biomes
  • The Earth has 17 major biomes , each with its own characteristic dominant shapes and forms of life.
  • Most biomes have been heavily altered by human action.
  • People have introduced exotic species to new habitats – sometimes creating benefits, often creating problems
  • Primary Rule: Unless there is a clear and good reason to introduce an exotic species into a new habitat, don’t do it.

Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e

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Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e

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Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e

17 major biomes
17 Major Biomes
  • Tundras

- treeless plains that occur in the harsh climates of low rainfall and low average temperature

- two types: artic tundra and alpine tundra

- parts have permafrost: permanently frozen ground

2. Taiga or Boreal Forests

- includes the forests of the cold climates of high latitudes and high altitudes

- dominant life forms including moose and other large mammals, small flowering plants and trees

  • Temperate Dedicious Forests

- occur in warmer climates that the boreal forest

4. Temperate Rainforest

- moderate temperatures, over 250 cm/year of rain

Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e

slide19
5. Temperate Woodlands

- Slightly drier climate that the deciduous forests

- fire is common and species adapt to it

6. Temperate Shrublands

- also called chaparral: miniature woodlands

7. Temperate Grasslands

- include many North American parries

8. Tropical Rain Forests

- high average temperature and rainfall

9. Tropical Seasonal Forest and Savannas

- high average temperature, low latitudes, abundant but seasonal rainfall

10. Deserts

- The driest region that vegetation can survive.

Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e

slide20

11. Wetlands

- Include freshwater swaps, ,marshes and bogs – all have standing water

12. Freshwaters

- Have phytoplankton and estuaries

13. Intertidal Areas

- Areas exposed to alternately to air during low tide and high tide

14. Open Ocean

- Also called the pelagic region

15. Bethos

- Bottom portion of the ocean

16. Upwellings

- Upward flows of ocean water

17. Hydrothermal Vents

- Occur in the deep ocean were plate tectonic processes create vents

Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e