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Artificial Muscle

Artificial Muscle

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Artificial Muscle

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  1. Artificial Muscle Larry Ballard Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS), Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Utah State University Date: 12/Jan/07

  2. Presentation Outline • References • To Probe Further • Overview of Artificial Muscle • Major Uses of Artificial Muscle • Principle of Operation (electric) • Major Specifications (electric) • Advantages (electric) • Disadvantages (electric) • Principle of Operation (Ionic) • Major Specifications (Ionic) • Advantages (Ionic) • Disadvantages (Ionic) • Where to Buy Artificial Muscle

  3. References • http://electrochem.cwru.edu/ed/encycl/art-p02-elact-pol.htm • http://www.popsci.com/popsci/futurebody/822d9371b1d75010vgnvcm1000004eecbccdrcrd.html Artificial Muscle

  4. To Explore Further • http://ndeaa.jpl.nasa.gov/nasa-nde/lommas/eap/EAP-material-n-products.htm Artificial Muscle

  5. Overview of Artificial Muscle • There are several different types of artificial muscle and not all of it is activated by electrical voltage or current. In this article however I will focus on the electronic artificial muscle. Artificial Muscle

  6. Overview of Artificial Muscle • There are two divisions of Electro-Active Polymers (EAP): Electronic and Ionic. Each type has it’s own advantages and disadvantages. • Electronic EAPs rely on the motion of electrons as opposed to Ionic EAPs which rely on the motion of ions Artificial Muscle

  7. Some Uses for Artificial Muscle • Valve Controllers • Pumps • Force and Pressure sensors • Acoustic Speakers • Linear Position Actuators • Catheter • Guide Wires Artificial Muscle

  8. Principle of Operation (Electronic) • An example of an electric EAP is the dielectric elastomer, which is a film in which thin carbon-based electrodes sandwich a soft plastic like silicone or acrylic. Electricity draws the electrodes together, squeezing the plastic, which expands to up to three times its normal area in about half a second. Actuators made of dielectric elastomers exert up to 30 times as much force, gram for gram, as human muscle. But they require several thousand volts of electricity. Artificial Muscle

  9. Common Types of Electronic EAP • Dielectric EAP • Electrostrictive Graft Elastomers • Electrostrictive Paper • Electro-Viscoelastic Elastomers • Ferroelectric Polymers Artificial Muscle

  10. Advantages • Exhibit rapid response (milliseconds) • Can hold strain under dc activation • Induces relatively large actuation forces • Exhibits high mechanical energy density • Can operate for a long time in room conditions Artificial Muscle

  11. Disadvantages • Requires high voltages (~100 MV/meter). Recent development allowed for (~20 MV/meter) in the Ferroelectric EAP • Independent of the voltage polarity, it produces mostly monopolar actuation due to associated electrostriction effect. Artificial Muscle

  12. Principle of Operation (Ionic) An example of an ionic EAP are the Ionic Polymer Metal Composites (IPMC). They consist of two metal-foil electrodes sandwiching a wet, Teflon-like plastic soaked with lithium ions. Twelve volts cause the lithium ions, which are positively charged, to migrate toward the negatively charged foil layer, bulking up that side of the actuator and bending the IPMC Artificial Muscle

  13. Common Types of Ionic EAP • Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) • Conductive Polymers (CP) • Electro-Rheological Fluids (ERF) • Ionic Polymer Gels (IPG) • Ionic Polymer Metallic Composite (IPMC) Artificial Muscle

  14. Advantages • Natural bi-directional actuation that depends on the voltage polarity. • Requires low voltage • Some ionic EAP like conducting polymers have a unique capability of bi-stability Artificial Muscle

  15. Disadvantages • Requires using an electrolyte • Requires encapsulation or protective layer in order to operate in open air conditions • Low electromechanical coupling efficiency • Except for CPs and NTs, ionic EAPs do not hold strain under dc voltage • Slow response (fraction of a second) • Bending EAPs induce a relatively low actuation force • Electrolysis occurs in aqueous systems at >1.23 V Artificial Muscle

  16. Producers and Researchers • Artificial Muscle, Inc • EAMEX Corporation • Environmental Robots Inc • MCNC Research and Development Institute • Micromuscle AB • Molecular Mechanisms LLC • NanoSonic, Inc. • Quantum Technology Pty. Ltd. • SRI International • Santa Fe Science and Technology Artificial Muscle