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A Workshop for Vocabulary Instruction . Presenter: Amy Benjamin Manalapan-Englishtown Regional Schools The slides in today’s presentation are available at www.amybenjamin.com (click on “recent presentations”). TOPICS:.

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a workshop for vocabulary instruction

A Workshop for Vocabulary Instruction

Presenter: Amy Benjamin

Manalapan-Englishtown Regional Schools

The slides in today’s presentation are available

at www.amybenjamin.com (click on “recent presentations”)

TOPICS:

  • Vocabulary instruction that improves reading comprehension and writing ability
slide2

Goals for Today: (Vocab)

Alternatives to vocab book: “boring”; “out of context”

Vocabulary to improve reading comprehension

Relevance to students’ everyday lives

Retention and use (as opposed to mem & regurge)

Standardized test performance, esp. with words in isolation

Learning how to learn words

current practice how are we teaching vocabulary
Current Practice: How are weteaching vocabulary?

What words do we select to teach explicitly?

How do we teach the words? (How do we introduce them? explain them?

get students to engage with them? manipulate them? reinforce them?

How do we assess our students’ vocabulary knowledge and growth?

What would be the ideal?

best practices in vocabulary instruction
Best Practices in Vocabulary Instruction:

Depth of processing:

Multiple exposures

Multiple meanings

Multiple contexts

Multiple forms of a word

Opportunity to communicate

Purposeful repetition

Treating phrases as words

Verbal and Nonverbal processing

of limited value
Of Limited Value…

Lists alone

Context alone

Definitions alone

Dictionaries and Glossaries alone

Of Durable Value…

Words in clusters

Multiple exposures in various contexts

Chances to speak, hear, write the words

Manipulation of forms of words

Classify and categorize word lists

Word games

what do we know when we know a word
What do we know when we know a word?

Definition

Spelling

Grammatical application (how to use it in a sentence)

Components: prefix,

root, suffix

Synonyms

Morphology (other forms that the word can take)

Other words that are

related to it (having

same root)

Connotation (positive, negative, neutral)

Register (formal or informal)

Collocations (words that tend to go with it)

Lesser-used definitions

slide8

Tier II Words

Tier III Words

Tier I Words:

Domain-specific

terminology;

“Glossary” words

On-the-job words

Language of academics,

business, government

“Vocab List” words

Everyday Language:

Ask

Dead

Name

Find out; figure out

Answer

Rain

Use

Sharp

Get

Take apart and put

together

balance

Photosynthesis

Cytoplasm

Metamorphosis

Asymmetrical

Bathysphere

Rhetoric

Deoxyribonucleic acid

Artifact

Habeas corpus

Diaspora

Polysyndeton

Adjective

Interrogate

Deceased

Designate; designation;

identify, identification

Ascertain; determine

Precipitate, precipitation

Utilize; employ

Acute

Acquire

Analyze; synthesize

equilibrium

x

chr___

___ic

ph

__y__

___sis

Code-switching

Prefix/root/suffix

slide9

High-Incidence Academic Word List (AWL)

570 words

Comprise 10% of the words in academic discourse

Are outside of the 2,000-3,000 words that are necessary for basic social

communication in English

CALP: Cognitive Academic Linguistic Proficiency

570 words on the AWL

2,000-3,000 words

for basic social communication

BIC: Basic Interpersonal Communication

slide10

AWL is arranged in 10 sublists, in order of frequency

65% of the words on the AWL have Latin/Greek word components

The words on the AWL can be used to form about 3,000 words (by adding

prefixes and suffixes)

core words
Core Words

intermittent

transmit

admit

commit

remit

submit

missive

admissible

submissive

commission

mission

permission

INTERMITTENT

REFLECT

SUBTRACT

COMPLIANCE

CORRESPONDENT

PROPELLER

TRANSPORTATION

DESTRUCTIVE

PERSPECTIVE

slide12

Target Word:

Vocabulary Chart:

Glossary Definition:

Visual:

Draw or find a picture:

My guess:

Definition in my own words:

Complete sentence of at least ____words:

Must contain an action verb and a visual image.

slide14

Morphology Kit

Adverb-making suffix:

-ly

word components level 1 usually known in elementary grades
Word Components: Level 1 (usually known in elementary grades)

Prefixes

ex-

pre-

re-

un-

dis-

non-

im-

mis-

mini-

maxi-

word components level 2 usually known in intermediate grades
Word Components: Level 2 (usually known in intermediate grades)

Prefixes

co-; con-; com-

syn-; sym-

in-; en- (into)

sub-; sup-

e-

a-; ab-

inter-

intra-

mono-

uni-

bi-; tri-; quad-, etc.

cent-; milli-; mega-

poly-; multi-

omni-

trans-

semi-

bio-; geo-; eco-

word components level 3 usually known in high school
Word Components: Level 3 (usually known in high school)

Prefixes

pseudo-

demi-

endo-; ecto-

pro-

per-

peri-

hemi-

ob-

bene-

mal-

photo-

nom-

ig-

muni-

contra-

philo-

slide18

Common Word Roots for Academic Subjects:

Basic:

-ject (to throw)

-port (to carry)

-scrip, scribe (to write)

-vert, vers (to turn)

-pos, pon (to place)

-tract (to draw)

-pel, pul (to drive)

-struct (to build)

-grad, gress (to step)

-plic, plex (to fold)

-flic, flex (to bend)

-fic, fac (to make)

-miss, mit (to send)

-sid, sed (to sit)

-spec (to see)

-voc (to call)

-dict (to say)

-rupt (to break)

Often combine with:

sub- re- pro-

ex- ob- per-

de- a-; ab- co-

con- e-

trans- ex-

Often end with:

-ive

-ation; sion

-ate

-able; ible

-or

slide19

Common Word Roots for Academic Subjects:

Advanced:

-cad, -cas,-cid (to fall)

-dyna (force; power)

-magn (great; large)

-quir, -quis (to seek)

-gen (race, kind origin)

-cham, -cam (vault)

-cen (to judge)

-doc, -dox (to think)

-greg (to flock)

-cau (to burn)

-ess, -sent (to exist)

-close, -clud, -clus (to close)

-mand, -mend (to order)

-junct (to join)

-jur, -jus (to swear)

-lith (stone)

Often combine with:

sub- re- pro-

ex- ob- per-

de- a-; ab- ne-

con- e-

trans- ex-

Often end with:

-ive

-ation; sion

-ate

-able; ible

-or

-ize

-ence, ance

-ary

slide20

<Slide 13: Print as full page>

Word Components Chart I

Write the words that you’ve heard of that would logically fill in the chart:

(Note: Not all the blanks should be filled in.)

slide21

Word Components Chart II

<Slide 14: Print as full page>

Write the words that you’ve heard of that would logically fill in the chart.

(Note: Not all of the blanks should be filled in.)

slide22

Word Components Chart II

<Slide 14: Print as full page>

Write the words that you’ve heard of that would logically fill in the chart.

(Note: Not all of the blanks should be filled in.)

slide23

Strength Training: Vocabulary

  • Here are a few things you can do that will take just a few minute of class time to
  • build your students’ vocabulary:
  • Analyze word prefixes and roots of key words to show how they are related
  • to words that students may already know.
  • 2. Embed the target word in a cluster of words related to the topic.
  • 3. Introduce key words that the students will meet in their upcoming readings.
  • Repeat new words in various contexts.
  • 5. Show the word. Emphasize its spelling and how it looks like related words.
  • 6. Give students opportunities to use new words in conversation.
  • 7. If you can, make connections between new words and words in other languages.
  • 8. Give students opportunities to use new words in informal writing.
  • 9. Indulge in word games and crossword puzzles to reinforce new word.
  • 10. Give students opportunities to use non-verbal ways to express meanings
    • (drawing, gestures, skits, charades).
word components flip a chip

RE

DUCE

Four words:

reduce, revoke

produce, provoke

PRO

VOKE

Word Components: Flip-a-Chip

Model:

Students are shown two chips having prefixes and two other chips having roots.

Any combination of these chips (prefix + root) will produce a word.

Then, given a cloze paragraph, students supply the appropriate word.

Example:

Mrs. Benjamin was vexed. “My students,” she declared_______ me when they

are late to class. They_________one excuse after another. I want to ________

the number of lateness to class, so I’ll _______ the privilege of using the

lavatory pass to any student who arrives late.”

Mountain, Lee. “Flip-a-chip to Build Vocabulary.

Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy. 46:1. September 2002.

word components flip a chip25
Word Components: Flip-a-Chip

Interplay replay

Interject reject

root

Contract extract

Contend extend

Prefix

Prefix

root

undo redo

unwind rewind

Project progress

Reject regress

Play:

Each pair of students is given a baggie, two chips (formed from the bottom of

a dixie cup) markers, and an index card.

Given a list of prefixes and roots, students come up with two prefixes and two

roots that will combine to form four words with every prefix + root combination.

Students then write a paragraph on the index card, leaving blanks for the four

words.

Students then put the chips and index cards (with their name on the back) on

the baggie and pass along to another pair.

slide26

president resident

preview review

compel, repel

comport, report

universe inverse

uniform inform

subtract, detract

subject, deject

receive perceive

retain pertain

dismiss remiss

distort retort

distract, extract

dispel, expel

absolve resolve

abject reject

suppose expose

support export

pretend, intend

prevent, invent

prescription description

preceive deceive

transmit submit

transcribe subscribe

comply, imply

comport, import

retract, attract

retain attain

commit permit

complex perplex

obtain detain

obstruct destruct

reflect deflect

renounce denounce

contract attract

contain attain

slide27

“The Ransom of

Red Chief”

Typical vocabulary list of words extracted from literature:

bellowing

cauterized

depredation

extortion

forlorn

impudent

palatable

precipice

proclivities

ransom

reconnoiter

seedy

somnolent

spendthrift

sylvan

  • Frequency outside of the story
  • Importance in understanding this story
  • Leverage to learn related words
  • Individual student’s curiosity and proximity
slide28

Common Word Roots for Academic Subjects:

Basic:

-ject (to throw)

-port (to carry)

-scrip, scribe (to write)

-vert, vers (to turn)

-pos, pon (to place)

-tract (to draw)

-pel, pul (to drive)

-struct (to build)

-grad, gress (to step)

-plic, plex (to fold)

-flic, flex (to bend)

-fic, fac (to make)

-miss, mit (to send)

-sid, sed (to sit)

-spec (to see)

-voc (to call)

-dict (to say)

-rupt (to break)

Often combine with:

sub- re- pro-

ex- ob- per-

de- a-; ab- co-

con- e-

trans- ex-

Often end with:

-ive

-ation; sion

-ate

-able; ible

-or

slide29

Common Word Roots for Academic Subjects:

Advanced:

-cad, -cas,-cid (to fall)

-dyna (force; power)

-magn (great; large)

-quir, -quis (to seek)

-gen (race, kind origin)

-cham, -cam (vault)

-cen (to judge)

-doc, -dox (to think)

-greg (to flock)

-cau (to burn)

-ess, -sent (to exist)

-close, -clud, -clus (to close)

-mand, -mend (to order)

-junct (to join)

-jur, -jus (to swear)

-lith (stone)

Often combine with:

sub- re- pro-

ex- ob- per-

de- a-; ab- ne-

con- e-

trans- ex-

Often end with:

-ive

-ation; sion

-ate

-able; ible

-or

-ize

-ence, ance

-ary

slide30

How can students benefit from a vocabulary list?

Classify

Analyze

Morph

Synthesize

Build

Students break

words down

into prefixes,

roots, suffixes

(Word Study)

Students

build words

into phrases;

phrases into

simple

sentences;

simple sentences

into complex

sentences

Students use

their words to

generate ideas

for a writing

piece:

Purposes:

To inform,

To entertain,

To persuade,

To socialize

Students

think of ways

in which the

words on

their lists can

be classified

(sorted,

arranged,

organized)

Students

manipulate the

words into

different parts

of speech by

adding

endings

the sentence making kit
The Sentence-Making Kit

Fold a 5 x 8 index card in half, width-wise:

Bicycle:

Who or what?

What about it?

Guess

What!

They

believed

that…

Yes/no

question

Stick-on

question

4.

1.

2.

3.

5.

the sentence making kit32
The Sentence-Making Kit

On the inside of the card:

AAAWWUBBIS:

although, as, after

while, when

until

because, before

if, since

If a sentence begins

with any of these words,

it must have two parts.

Place a comma between

the two parts if one of

these words begins

the sentence.

These words, plus the comma, may join

two sentences. Writers sometimes begin

sentences with these words if they are

doing so for emphasis.

,and

,but

,so

Use as many

ACTION VERBS as possible.

Flip the switch into formal English:

a lot = a great many or a great deal

gonna= going to

wanna= want to

hafta= have to

get,got = become, became, receive

received, obtain, obtained

gotta: must

These words will help you

give detail in your sentences:

Try beginning some of your

sentences with these words:

Use words and groups of words that

answer the ADVERB QUESTIONS:

When? Where? Why? How?

To what extent? How often?

IN FOR

ON WITH

AT

the sentence making kit33
The Sentence-Making Kit

On the back of the card:

Substitutions for homophones and spelling problems:

their = his

there = here

they’re = they are

your = his

you’re = you are

its = his

it’s = it is; it has

woman = man

women = men

I before E except after C

Or when sounded as A

As in neighbor or sleigh