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VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION. Essential Questions. What are the CODE vocabulary principles? What are Marzano’s six steps to effective vocabulary instruction? How do the CODE and Marzano steps help struggling students add to their word knowledge?
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Essential Questions • What are the CODE vocabulary principles? • What are Marzano’s six steps to effective vocabulary instruction? • How do the CODE and Marzano steps help struggling students add to their word knowledge? • How can I implement both the CODE principles and Marzano process into daily intervention instruction?
Learning Targets • I can explain the CODE Vocabulary Principles and Marzano’s Six-step Vocabulary Instruction. • I can implement CODE and Marzano into daily classroom planning and instruction.
“The limits of my language are the limits of my mind. All I know is what I have words for.” –Ludwig Wittgenstein (1953) “Acquiring the vocabulary we use for thinking and communicating is a linguistic achievement of nearly incomprehensible importance and complexity.” --Phythian-Sence and Wagner (2007)
The Gap continues….. 1,000,000 words 100,000 words
Recognizing the need to teach vocabulary is important……. But HOW you teach vocabulary makes all the difference in a student’s actual word acquisition.
“It is imperative to be mindful of the serious limitations inherent in the three most common vocabulary teaching practices in K-12 classrooms.” Kevin Feldman & Kate Kinsella
Effective vocabulary instruction requires: • Active and positive student participation (Carr & Wixson, 1986) • Personal engagement with a new word (Dole, Sloan &Trathen, 1995) • Opportunities for students to discuss new words • Teaching vocabulary before reading (National Reading Panel 2000) • Learning in rich contexts, incidental learning, and the use of computer technology National Reading Panel 2000) • Providing multiple exposures to a word (Marzano., 2003)
Direct Vocabulary Instruction Works • Building Academic Vocabulary, 2
Making Vocabulary Memorable) C O D E
Basic Principles of Vocabulary InstructionPrinciple C Students remember vocabulary when the word is strongly Connected to what they already know and have experienced.
Principle O Students remember more information when it is clearly Organized.
Principle D Students remember vocabulary when it is Deeply processed through visual, auditory, physical, or emotional experiences.
Principle E Students remember vocabulary when they are given the opportunity to Explore or think about it in a variety of ways.
Daily Classroom Instruction for Vocabulary Marzano’s Six-Step Approach
Step 1 The teacher provides a description, explanation or example of the new term.
Step 2 Students restate the explanation of the new term in their own words.
Step 3 Students create a nonlinguistic representation of the term.
Step 4 Students periodically engage in activities that help them add to their knowledge of vocabulary terms.
Step 5 Frequently have students discuss important terms with one another.
Step 6 Periodically engage students in games that allow them to play with the terms. Games
Revisiting CODE • Without using your notes, think back to the discussion of the CODE vocabulary principles. On a piece of scrap paper, jot down what you remember. • Turn to a partner and see if you can fill in any gaps.
C C D ODE CODE ODE
Reflective Journal “Many teachers see vocabulary as necessary for better reading. Few, however, realize its long-term effect on learning, achievement, thinking, & communication.” --Bromley, 2002; Watts, 1995 Learning Targets • I can explain the CODE principles of vocabulary instruction and Marzano’s six steps. • I can implement CODE and Marzano into my daily classroom planning and instruction.
Bibliography Wagner, Richard, Andrea E. Muse and Kendra R. Tannenbaum. Vocabulary Acquisition: Implications for Reading Comprehension. Guilford Press: New York, 2007. Wittgenstein, Ludwig. Philosophical Investigations, 1953. Hart, Betty & Risley, Todd R. Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children. Paul H. Brookes Publishing: Baltimore, 1995. Nagy, W., & Anderson, R. C. (1984). “How many words are there in printed school English?” Reading Research Quarterly, 19, 304-330. Feldman, Kevin & Kate Kinsella. “Narrowing the Language Gap: The Case for Explicit Vocabulary Instruction”. Scholastic, 2005. Dole, Slone, and Trathen. “The Cornerstones of Reading Comprehension: Teaching for Vocabulary and Text Understanding.” (2002) Retrieved from the World Wide Web http://www.designedinstruction.com/learningleads/reading-vocabulary-text.pdf (June, 2010). Marzano, Robert. Building Backgraound Knowledge for Academic Achievement. ASCD: 2003. Carr, E., & Wixson, K.K. (1986). Guidelines for evaluating vocabulary instruction. Journal of Reading, 29, 588–595. National Reading Panel. Put Reading First. National Institute for Literacy, 2001. Silver, H., Strong, R., Perini, M. (2007). The Hidden Skills of Academic Literacy. Alexandria.: Thoughtful Education Press. Bromley, K. (2004). Rethinking vocabulary instruction. The Language and Literacy • Spectrum, 14(Spring), 3-12.