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LEQ: What is the role of ATP in cellular activities?. Cellular Energy Pages 72 to 75. Energy. What is energy? The capacity to do work What is Kinetic energy? Energy of motion Heat (thermal energy) is kinetic energy given off due the the movement of molecules What is Potential energy?

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energy
Energy
  • What is energy?
    • The capacity to do work
  • What is Kinetic energy?
    • Energy of motion
    • Heat (thermal energy) is kinetic energy given off due the the movement of molecules
  • What is Potential energy?
    • Stored energy that an object possess as a result of its location or structure
    • Chemical energy is potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction
slide3

A diver has more potential

energy on the platform

than in the water.

Diving converts

potential energy to

kinetic energy.

Climbing up converts the kinetic

energy of muscle movement

to potential energy.

A diver has less potential

energy in the water

than on the platform.

thermodynamics
Thermodynamics
  • What is thermodynamics?
    • The study of energy transformation
    • Organisms are open systems
    • In an open system, energy and matter can be transferred between the system and its environment
the first law of thermodynamics
The First Law of Thermodynamics
  • According to the first law of thermodynamics, the energy of the universe is constant:

– Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed

  • The first law is also called the principle of conservation of energy
the second law of thermodynamics
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
  • During every energy transfer or transformation, some energy is unusable, and is often lost as heat
  • According to the second law of thermodynamics:

– Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy (disorder) of the universe

slide7

Heat

CO2

+

Chemical

energy

H2O

(a) First law of thermodynamics

(b) Second law of thermodynamics

biological order and disorder
Biological Order and Disorder
  • Living things are ordered, decreasing entropy - this requires an input of energy, increasing entropy….
    • Building macromolecules (dehydration synthesis) decreases entropy by organizing atoms into molecules, molecules into cells, etc…
    • In order to build / maintain organization requires an input of energy which increases entropy
chemical reactions
Chemical Reactions
  • Endergonic Reactions
    • “Energy In”
    • Require a net input of energy
    • Rich in potential energy
    • Photosynthesis – takes in energy to produce sugar; energy stored in bonds
slide11

Fig. 8-6b

Products

Amount of

energy

required

(∆G > 0)

Energy

Free energy

Reactants

Progress of the reaction

(b) Endergonic reaction: energy required

chemical reactions1
Chemical Reactions
  • Exergonic Reactions
    • “Energy Out”
    • Chemical reactions that release energy
    • Cellular respiration – breaking bonds of sugar to release energy
slide13

Fig. 8-6a

Reactants

Amount of

energy

released

(∆G < 0)

Energy

Free energy

Products

Progress of the reaction

(a) Exergonic reaction: energy released

chemical reactions2
Chemical Reactions
  • Cellular Metabolism
    • Sum of all exergonic and endergonic reactions in a cell
    • Anabolic Pathways – consume energy to build complex molecules from simple ones (endergonic)
    • Catabolic Pathways – release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simple ones (exergonic)
chemical reactions3
Chemical Reactions
  • Energy Coupling
    • The use of energy released from exergonic reactions to drive essential endergonic reactions
adenosine triphosphate
Adenosine Triphosphate
  • Energy currency of the cell
  • Powers nearly all cellular work through energy coupling reactions

Adenine

Phosphate groups

Ribose

slide17

Fig. 8-9

P

P

P

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

H2O

+

P

P

P

Energy

+

i

Inorganic phosphate

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)

atp adp cycle
ATP – ADP Cycle

ATP

+

H2O

Energy for cellular

work (endergonic,

energy-consuming

processes)

Energy from

catabolism (exergonic,

energy-releasing

processes)

ADP

P

+

i

Phosphorylation - adding a phosphate

cells use atp
Cells use ATP
  • Three types of cellular work that are powered by hydrolysis of ATP
    • Cell Transport – Bringing materials into cells
    • Mechanical Work – muscle contractions
    • Chemical Work – macromolecule synthesis
slide20

Fig. 8-11

Membrane protein

P

P

i

Solute transported

Solute

(a) Transport work: ATP phosphorylates

transport proteins

ADP

+

ATP

P

i

Vesicle

Cytoskeletal track

ATP

Protein moved

Motor protein

(b) Mechanical work: ATP binds noncovalently

to motor proteins, then is hydrolyzed