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Staircase. Building Planning for Staircases. Relativity, 1953, M.C. ESCHER. Outline. Evolution of Staircases. Why do we need Staircase?. Staircase Terminology. Types of Staircases. Building Codes on Staircase. Universal Design of Staircase. Staircase Unlimited. Resources.

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  1. Staircase Building Planning for Staircases

  2. Relativity, 1953, M.C. ESCHER

  3. Outline Evolution of Staircases Why do we need Staircase? Staircase Terminology Types of Staircases Building Codes on Staircase Universal Design of Staircase Staircase Unlimited Resources

  4. Evolution of Staircases

  5. “Staircases are one of the oldest building elements in architectural histories…reflecting the prevailing philosophies and symbolic language…” - Staircases through history by Eva Jiricna

  6. Symbolic Meaning of Staircase Angkor Wat Steps, Cambodia

  7. Reflecting Architectural Movement Paris Opera House by Charles Garnier, Beaux Arts Architecture Movement

  8. Staircase as a Lifestyle Glass Spiral Staircase at Apple Store , Boston

  9. Why do we need Staircase?

  10. “…to protect people from injury and to facilitate access during movement from one level to another in a building.” - Building & Construction Authority (BCA) Acceptable Solutions – under Regulation 27 of the Building Control Regulations Ver 3.01

  11. A staircase shall have

  12. handrails or guides to assist movement

  13. landings to break a fall and provide a place for rest

  14. sufficient headroom to avoid injury

  15. barriers against falling from 1.0 m or more from an open side

  16. Staircase Terminology

  17. Staircase Terminology Nosing Riser Tread

  18. Staircase Terminology Min Headroom Total rise Landing Landing Pitch line Pitch Total going

  19. Staircase Terminology Handrail Balustrade

  20. Types of Staircases

  21. Straight Flight Staircase

  22. Straight two-flight stair with half-landing

  23. Quarter-turn stair with landing

  24. Dogleg stair with half-landing

  25. Quarter-turn stair with winders

  26. Spiral stair with central column

  27. Circular stair with central well

  28. Building Code on Staircase (Acceptable Solutions)

  29. Projection 2.0 m headroom Handrail Landing Landing Pitch line No projection, other than handrails, is allowed in a staircase within a height of 2.0 m from the landing or pitch line.

  30. Width of Staircase 900mm 900mm 900mm The width of every staircase shall not be less than 900 mm The width is measured from the inner side of the wall, balustrade or handrail.

  31. Risers & Treads Riser max 175mm Tread min 250mm The height of a riser shall not be more than 175 mm. The width of a tread shall not be less than 250 mm The risers and treads within each flight of stairs shall be of uniform height and size.

  32. Landings of Staircase min 900mm A landing shall be provided at every floor level and door opening. An intermediate landing shall be provided in between floor levels at intervals of not more than 18 risers. The length of any intermediate landing, measured in the direction of travel, shall not be less than 900 mm. min 900mm

  33. Headroom 2.0 m headroom Handrail Landing Landing Pitch line The headroom of any staircase shall not be less than 2.0 m.

  34. Handrail A handrail shall be provided on at least one side of the flight of staircase. The height of the handrail shall be between 750 mm and 900 mm above the pitch line. A handrail need not be provided for a flight of not more than 5 steps. A handrail may terminate at the landing and the ends of the handrail should be properly formed or rounded off so that they do not pose a danger to the user. Handrail Between 750mm – 900mm Pitch line

  35. Protection from falling The height of a barrier shall not be less than 900mm The size of any opening or gap in a barrier shall not be large enough as to permit the passage of a sphere of a diameter of 100 mm. Any triangular opening or void formed around a tread, riser and the bottom edge of the barrier, the size of any opening or gap shall not be large enough as to permit the passage of a sphere of a diameter of 150 mm Barrier 1o0mm 150mm Min 900mm Pitch line

  36. Universal Design of Staircases

  37. Universal Design “design for all people”.

  38. Treads & Risers Uniform risers of maximum 150 mm and treads of minimum 300 mm All steps shall be fitted with non-slip nosing strips between 50 mm and 65mm in width with permanent contrasting colours Tactile strips should be provided at the start and end of every flight of stairs.

  39. Width of Staircase & Landings Width min 1200mm landing min 1200mm The width of stairs is to be of minimum width of 1200 mm and should be adjusted according to the expected flow of traffic. Floor landings shall have a level platform of the same width as that of the stairs.

  40. Handrail Handrails should be provided on both sides of the stairs and continuous throughout the entire length.

  41. Handrail 800 - 900mm >300mm Handrails shall extend at least 1 tread depth or 300 mm beyond the top and bottom step. The height of the handrails is to be between 800 mm and 900 mm

  42. After a maximum of 16 risers an intermediate landing should be provided. Staircases of widths wider than 2300 mm should be separated by a handrail into segments between 1100 mm and 1800 mm.

  43. Staircase Unlimited

  44. Form Feature Staircase at Lobby, New Majestic Hotel, Singapore

  45. Material Feature Staircase, Longchamp Retail Store in New York City

  46. Detailing Hanging Staircase, Apple Store, Beijing

  47. Lighting Staircase, Stadium Circle Line MRT Station

  48. Resources

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