Homeland Security Presented by Robert A. Hill; CHS-III American Casino & Entertainment Properties, LLC Surveillance Supervisor/Homeland Security Liaison
About the Presenter • Casino Surveillance since 1996. • Four years of supervisory experience • Level 3 Certification in Homeland Security through American College of Forensic Examiners Institute • Served In United States Air Force and Air Force Reserve during Operations ‘Desert Storm’, ‘Noble Eagle’ and served in direct support of Operation ‘Southern Watch’. Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal
Topics of Discussion Today, we will discuss: • Overview of Terrorism (including a definition, history and categories of terrorism) • Objectives of Terrorists • Methods of Terrorism • Preparation and Response to catastrophic event or terrorist act Please hold any questions until after the presentation. Thank you.
Overview of Terrorism • Terrorism defined: “the premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetuated against targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents. Usually intended to influence an audience.” US Code on Foreign Relations
Overview of Terrorism What does the previous statement mean? Lets dissect this definition for an easier understanding. “The premeditated, politically motivated…” Terrorists often plan their actions well in advance and in great detail (premeditated). Most terrorist acts are often inspired by political, ideological or religious goals (politically motivated).
Overview of Terrorism “ …by sub-national groups or clandestine agents…” Modern terrorists often operate in secret, without formal backing of sovereign nations. They do not claim to act on behalf of a country. However, it is no secret that some nations, particularly in the Middle East, condone terrorist acts and have provided safe haven for terrorists, as well as funds, training and materials.
Overview of Terrorism “…usually intended to influence an audience.” A measure of a successful terrorist event is gaining attention for a cause and/or swaying the opinions, actions or policies of governments or the civilian population through coercion, intimidation and fear. Terrorist acts are more frequently being recorded and broadcast on the world-wide web and other media outlets. This reaches the world audience.
Overview of Terrorism The history of terrorism dates back to the first century AD. Zealots of Judea • Known to the Romans as ‘sicarii’ (“dagger men”), the Zealots of Judea were the first known organization that exhibited aspects of modern terrorism. • Assassination of Roman occupation forces and collaborators.
Overview of Terrorism In the 13th century, a new tactic was employed. Nizari Ismalis (“Assassins”) • A break-away faction of Shia Islam that adopted the tactic of assassinating enemy leaders. • Limited resources and manpower. • Inspired fear in their enemy.
Overview of Terrorism French Revolution (1788-1799) • First use of the word “terrorist” and “terrorism”. Reference to the ‘Reign of Terror’ initiated by the Revolutionary government. Between 18,000 and 40,000 were executed during this time (1793-1794). Agents of the Committee ofPublic Safety and National Convention committed acts of brutality, imprisonment and intimidation enforcing state policy, referred to as “the Terror” by the oppressed French citizens. Those agents were referred to as “terrorists”.
Overview of Terrorism European Anarchist Movement (1880’s-1910’s) • Radical political theories and improvements in weapons technologies inspired anarchists to attempt to topple European nation-states in the late 19th century. • “Propaganda by Deed”: Direct action; “actions speak louder than words.” Propaganda by deed actions sought to inspire the masses and catalyzing the anarchist movement. • Bombings of government buildings and assassination of various heads of state in Russia, France, England, Spain, and Italy. • Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand in 1914 triggered World War I. • Civilian populace was not exempt from attack.
Overview of Terrorism Bolshevik Revolution (1917) • Sought spark a revolution that would lead to the destruction of capitalism and democracy throughout the world. Lenin and the Bolsheviks ruled through oppression of the masses. • Incarceration and execution of political opponents
Overview of Terrorism Islamic Revolution (Iran) (1978) • Popularized terrorism as an acceptable form of Islamic defiance • Marked by huge, violent protests. • Widespread arson and bombings. Over 400 killed in single attack on a cinema. • The terror group which later became known as Hezbollah was formed. Served as “strong-arm thugs” who attacked those critical of Ayatollah Khomeini. • Iran Hostage Crisis: 66 Americans kidnapped by Islamic student-protesters. Ordeal lasted 444 days.
Overview of Terrorism Terrorism has evolved over the centuries, but several constants remain: • No regard for laws. • Violent means to achieve political, social or religious goals. • Psychological impact and fear • Deliberate targeting of non-combatants
Overview of Terrorism TRUE OR FALSE ‘terrorists are irrational, mindless killers’ FALSE! Misconception
Overview of Terrorism Terrorist violence is usually not without purpose; seldom random or irrational. • Conception • Organizing/Planning • Financing • Goal-oriented • Execution of plan
Overview of Terrorism • Typical Criminal Behavior vs. Terrorist Behavior Typical criminals are: • Opportunistic • Uncommitted • Self-centered • Lacking a cause • Untrained • Escape oriented
Overview of Terrorism • Typical Criminal Behavior vs. Terrorist Behavior Terrorists are: • Focused • Committed by ideology • Often team oriented • Consumed by a cause • Well trained • Attack oriented and above all PATIENT
Overview of Terrorism Terrorists want to make a statement through their actions. Political Economic Religious
Overview of Terrorism Sometimes, terrorist actions are “retaliation” for alleged transgressions. • Israeli – Palestinian conflict • Kidnapping and brutal slaying of hostages in Iraq
Overview of Terrorism Two Categories of Terrorism • International • Domestic
Overview of Terrorism International Terrorist Organizations • Three Categories • International Jihad • Formal Terrorist Organizations • State Sponsored Terrorism
Overview of Terrorism • International Jihad • Clandestine militants affiliated with Islamic “extremists” around the world. • Perception among many Muslims that American foreign policy, as it relates to Middle Eastern affairs, is unfair and oppressive by favoring Israel. • Justify violence as “God’s will”, as prescribed in the Koran. “Jihad” (holy war) against those who don’t convert to Islam. • “Jihad in Islam is simply a name for striving to make this system of life dominant in the world”- Sayyid Qutb, Islamic Fundamentalist (1906 – 1966) • Al Qaeda and Islamic Jihad are categorized as an international jihad organization.
Overview of Terrorism “…Cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve. Therefore strike off their heads and strike off every fingertip...”Koran [8.12] “Fight (the infidels), Allah will punish them by your hands…” Koran [9.14] “And (as for) those who disbelieve, for them is destruction ...” Koran [47.8]
Overview of Terrorism There are an estimated 1.5 billion Muslims around the world. • If only 1% of the worlds Muslims were considered “extremists” or “radical” = 15,000,000 This roughly equals the total combined populations of New York City, Los Angeles and Chicago!(2005 census info provided by www.infoplease.com)
Overview of Terrorism Al Qaeda • “the base” • Founded in 1988 by Osama Bin Laden to repel the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan • Sunni Islam • No formal state backing. Operatives trained to act independently in support of goals. • Objectives include: elimination of foreign influence in the Muslim world; eradication of “infidels” (non-Muslims); elimination of Israel; creation of a Islamic “caliphate” (unified global Islamic government). • Tactics include: bombings, kidnapping, assassination, sabotage, attempts to proliferate WMD. • Prior to 9/11, Al Qaeda was responsible for the 1993 World Trade Center attack, the 1998 twin bombings of the U.S. Embassies in Tunisia and Kenya, and the bombing of the USS Cole. Al Qaeda supplied weapons and training to Somali militants who were responsible for the “Blackhawk Down” attack in 1993. • Affiliated cells throughout the world that have carried out scores of devastating attacks, killing hundreds since 9/11. • Sleeper cells believed to be in as many as forty states, according to the FBI.
Overview of Terrorism • Formal Terrorist Organizations • Maintain a local, regional or international presence. • Cloak activities behind the front of ‘legitimate’ organizations. Holy Land Foundation for Relief and Development; Richardson TX. BUSTED!!! December 2001: Investigation by FBI found this organization had funneled over $12 million to HAMAS between 1995 and 2001. Seven indicted on forty-two charges including money laundering, tax evasion and providing support to a foreign terrorist organization. • Hezbollah, Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade, Abu Nidal Organization, the Irish National Liberation Army and FARC (Columbian communist revolutionary group) are examples of Formal Terrorist Organizations.
Overview of Terrorism Hezbollah • “Party of God” • Founded in 1982 as an Islamic militia in Lebanon • Follows teachings of Shi’a Islam as developed by Ayatollah Khomeini during the Islamic Revolution in Iran. • Objectives include: eradication of Western “colonialism” in Lebanon; establish Lebanon as an Islamic state; complete destruction of Israel. • Tactics include: ambushes, assassinations, bombings • Prior to 9/11, Hezbollah terrorists had killed more Americans than Al Qaeda. Responsible for bombing of the Marine Corps barracks in Lebanon which killed nearly 300 servicemen, and the U.S. Embassy in Lebanon which killed over 60. • The FBI believes there are between 2,000 and 10,000 Hezbollah members currently in the United States. The FBI says Hezbollah is a major threat and may surpass the threat posed by Al Qaeda. (courtesy: Fox News; 1/18/07)
Overview of Terrorism • State Sponsors of Terrorism • Political term for nations who finance, equip, and provide intelligence to, terrorist organizations across international boundaries. • Includes providing compensation to families of militants/terrorists, who are killed carrying out terrorist activities. • Used to produce strategic results where conventional use of armed forces is not practical or possible. • Not to be confused with “state terrorism”, which is violence against civilians perpetrated by a national government or proxy-state. • HAMAS is an example of a state-sponsored terrorist organization.
Overview of Terrorism HAMAS • Acronym for “Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya” or ‘Islamic Resistance Movement’ • Founded in 1987 in Syria as a Palestinian resistance movement • Objectives: Withdraw from Israeli-occupied territories and utter destruction of Israel. “There is no solution to the Palestinian question except through jihad.” • Receives support from Iran and private benefactors in Saudi Arabia • Known for extensive use of suicide bombings, guerilla warfare, rocket and mortar attacks in the Israeli-occupied territories. • Came into surprising political power in 2006, winning a majority of seats in the Palestinian elections. • Engaged in a month-long war with Israel in summer of 2006. • In November 2006, HAMAS called for Muslims around the world to attack the interests of the United States across the globe.
Overview of Terrorism • State Sponsors of Terrorism • Iran (since 1984) • North Korea(since 1988) • Cuba(since 1982) • Sudan (since 1993) • Syria(since 1979) Libya and Iraq were recently removed from this list. US State Department www.state.gov
Overview of Terrorism Between 1980 and 2001, the FBI recorded 482 Actual or suspected terrorist incidents directed at the United States. 310 were attributed to domestic terror groups. Federal Bureau of Investigation www.fbi.gov
Overview of Terrorism Terrorism by Event: 1980 to 2001 324 bombings; 33 arsons; 22 other; 21 assassinations; 19 shootings; 19 sabotage; 6 WMD related; 3 hijackings Pie chart courtesy: www.fbi.gov
Overview of Terrorism Domestic Terrorism • There are three categories of Domestic Terrorism • Right-Wing • Left-Wing • Special Interest (single issue)
Overview of Terrorism Terrorism by Group Class: 1980 to 2001 164 terrorism incidents attributed to International terrorists; 130 to left-wing terrorist groups; 85 to right-wing terror groups and 81 to special interest groups. Pie-chart courtesy: www.fbi.gov
Overview of Terrorism Graph courtesy www.fbi.gov Domestic Terrorism Incidents by Region: 1980 to 2001 310 total domestic terrorism incidents Northeast: 144 Puerto Rico: 130 Western: 97 Southern: 72 North Central: 54
Overview of Terrorism Examples of Domestic Terrorism • Ruby Ridge Standoff; Idaho • 1992. White separatist family holed-up in mountain home shoot it out with federal agents after a ten-day stand off. Several family members killed, including the wife of Randy Weaver, the groups leader.
Overview of Terrorism Examples of Domestic Terrorism Branch Davidian Standoff; Waco TX 1993. Religious extremists die after a 51 day stand-off siege. Standoff began when authorities tried to serve a warrant on suspected illegal weapons charges and ended with a fiery siege on the cult’s compound. Eighty-two members of the group died in the fire, including twenty children, as well as four federal agents.
Overview of Terrorism Examples of Domestic Terrorism Oklahoma City bombing; Oklahoma 1995. A truck driven by an anti-government radical and packed with explosives was detonated outside a federal office building. The blast killed 168 people, including scores of children, and destroyed the building.
Overview of Terrorism Examples of Domestic Terrorism Columbine School Massacre; Colorado 1999. A pair of teens go on shooting rampage at their school, killing 12 students, a teacher, then themselves.
Overview of Terrorism Examples of Domestic Terrorism University of North Carolina; NC 2006: An Iranian-born graduate from the University of North Carolina ran down 9 students on campus while driving an SUV. Claiming it was to avenge perceived transgressions against Muslims, the suspect said that he was “thankful for the opportunity to spread the will of Allah.”
Overview of Terrorism What is a form of domestic terrorism that is frequently overlooked? GANGS
Overview of Terrorism • Over one million active gang members in the United States. • Principle activity of gangs: Illegal Drug Trafficking • Drug money has been shown to be a major source of terrorist funding. US Department of Justice, 2000 • The Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department refers to gangs as “urban terrorists” as they instill fear in the community through acts of violence.
Overview of Terrorism • Right Wing • Racial, ethnic, “hate” groups • Extreme religious views; separatist or supremacy views Aryan Nation, Neo-Nazi and Skin-head groups Ku Klux Klan World Church of the Creator Jewish Defense League Per www.fbi.gov
Overview of Terrorism 2. Left Wing • Socialist or Revolutionary doctrine • Anti-government views • View themselves as ‘true patriots’; protectors of the people against ‘dehumanizing’ effects of capitalism • Militia groups can fall into this category
Overview of Terrorism 3. Special Interest (single issue) • Seek to resolve specific issues rather than wide-spread political change. • Extreme views Animal Rights Anti-abortion Environment (“eco-terror”) Anti-nuclear Anti-war