The Northwest Passage • In the 1400’s there was a great demand in Europe for silks, spices, and goods from Asia. • Europe wanted to find a new trade route traveling west from Europe • Where is Europe? • What countries are in Europe? • Where is Asia? • Where is the New World? • What ocean did explorers cross to explore a Northwest Passage?
Christopher Columbus • 1492 : Set out to find this new route to Asia! • Landed in the West Indies where he found a rich land of gold, silver, and jewels! • Countries were encouraged by this!! • Spain began sending explorers over to North America • This increased their wealth and power • England gets jealous and starts sending explorers to New World!
Queen Elizabeth I • “Elizabethan England” • Late 1500’s • Problems in England: overpopulation, lack of resources and raw materials, competition and war with Spain! • TRIVIA: Who was the famous playwright who lived during this time? (Hint: He wrote Romeo and Juliet)
Charters • A charter is a written grant of privileges (allowed English to colonize in New World) • Attempt 1: Sir Humphrey Gilbert (1583) • Attempt 2: Sir Walter Raleigh
Sir Walter Raleigh • Arrival on Roanoke Island (present day N.Carolina) • Reports of beautiful land and plentiful resources • Named the land VIRGINIA (after Queen Elizabeth) • Failure to colonize
Lost Colony of Roanoke • John White led 150 farmers and families to island to set up a colony • White returns to England for supplies • Because of the war with Spain, England could spare no money or supplie • 3 years pass . . .
“Croatoan” • The colony was deserted • The only thing left was the word “Croatoan” carved into a tree • This settlement became known as the Lost Colony
King James • England: 1600’s • Virginia Company of London sold shares to wealthy English landowners to help finance trip (economic venture) • Granted a charter • Why did England wish to colonize? • Read the charter and find out!
Early explorers wanted to find a new trade route to Asia. Why? They set sail to find a ____________________ that would take them west from Europe to Asia. Spain began colonizing in the New World. _______________________ was the queen of England who granted the first charter to colonize in the New World. The first colony was on the island of ___________________. This island is now in present day ___________________________. What happened to the colony? Lets Review!
Review _____________________ was the king who wanted to try again to colonize in the New World. He granted a __________________ which is a written grant or privilege allowing settlers to set up a colony in the New World. The charter was granted to the_______ ___ _______. This company hoped to make money from the settlement of Jamestown. This is called an _________ ________. What year did settlers land in Jamestown?
What types of men were chosen to journey to the New World to set up Jamestown? Doctors? Lawyers? Builders? Clowns? Rap Stars?Gentlemen? Brick layers? Taxi Cab Drivers? Cowboys? Zoo keepers?Bakers?Artists?
W H A T K I N D O F G R A P H Is T H I S ? • Is this good or bad news for the new colony?
THE JOURNEY TO THE NEW WORLD From England to Virginia
The Journey to Jamestown The settlers left England on Dec.19, 1606 The three ships that made the journey were the Susan Constant, the Godspeed, and the Discovery The expedition was led by Captain Christopher Newport
Privacy? Life on the Ship! • The ships were very small to carry 105 grown men. • Only the sailors were allowed on deck • Passengers stayed in tight quarters beneath the deck of the ships. Most of the ship was full of supplies…there was little room for personal items
Route to the New World They were stuck in the English harbor for six weeks!!
Imagine yourself onboard . . . • Seasickness • Boredom • Passengers had no privacy • What would it smell like beneath the deck? (people were getting sick, slop buckets)
Settlers slept in tight quarters on beds made of straw mattresses • Fresh water became contaminated which led to horrible sicknesses • Many times the only thing passengers had to eat was salted meat and biscuit called “Hard Tack” • HARD TACK • Cracker made of flour and • water • Cheap to make • Will last for YEARS! • It was nutritious however people complained that it didn’t fill them up • Sometimes it was so hard that it couldn’t be bitten into. It could break your teeth! • It would often become contaminated with WEEVILS!
England • Canary Islands to gather supplies • West Indies • Past Florida . . . JOURNEY onward….
ARRIVAL IN NEW WORLD! April 26, 1607! Jamestown was located on a narrow peninsula on the James River!
Reasons for Choosing the Site • The location could be easily defended from attack • The water along the shore was deep enough for the ships to dock • They believed they had a good amount of fresh water
One last question… • What shape was the Jamestown fort built in?
At first the Powhatans were very curious about the new English settlers • What are some of the difference between the two cultures?
Jamestown Trade! • English settlers traded : • Guns • Pots • Tools • to the Powhatan Indians • Powhatans traded: • Food • Leather • Furs • to the English settlers
Hardships • Jamestown settlers found life harder than they had expected! • What did the gentlemen expect to find in the New World? What did they expect the New World to be like?
Main Hardships • The site they chose for Jamestown was marshy and swampy. It lacked safe drinking water! Water at high tide was brackish Water at low tide was muddy
Hardships at Jamestown 2) Many settlers died of starvation and disease • Swamp lands carried a deadly disease called malaria • Malaria called chills and a fever • Many settlers died of malaria By September 1607, almost half the colonists were dead!
Hardships at Jamestown 3) The gentlemen lacked the skills to provide for themselves and survive! • Many were unwilling to work • They were concerned about finding _______ Gold Fever! “ . . . The worst mischiefe was our gilded refiners, with their golden promises. . . . There was no talke, no hope, nor worke, but dig gold, was gold, refine gold, and load gold . . .” - A Jamestown colonist
Hardships at Jamestown Name the three main hardships the colonists faced!
Hardships at Jamestown • Captain John Smith emerged as a leader at this time! • He initiated a trading relationship with the Indians • He created the FORCED WORK PROGRAM
Captain John Smith • Explored the lands with Captain Newport • Much of what we know of early Virginia comes from his explorations and writing
Pocahontas • John Smith gets captured by a Powhatan hunting party and was brought before Chief Powhatan • Story of Pocahontas • Is the story true?
Pocahontas • She believed that the English and Native Americans could live in peace • She began a friendship with the colonists • The Powatans helped the colonists to survive by trading with them, bringing them food, and introducing new crops to them (tobacco, corn)
Starving Time • John Smith is hurt in a gunpowder explosion • He sails back to England • The colony had lost their leader! • What happened to the Forced Work Program? • What happened to the trading relationships with the Indians? • The winter of 1609 was the worst yet!
Starving Time • Colonists could not leave the fort . . . Indians were waiting to attack! • The colonists were starving! They ate horses, dogs, cats, rats, and mice. • By the end of the winter only 60/500 colonists were left!
Survival • Sir Thomas Gates arrives with two ships of supplies with instructions to teach the Indians Christianity • He saw the harsh conditions and started to bring settlers back home • On the way, they meet Lord De La Warr who brought supplies to the colony
So . . . • 3 main hardships at Jamestown: • The land was marshy and lacked safe drinking water • The gentlemen settlers lacked survival skills • Starvation and disease • 3 events that helped the colony to survive: • The forced work program (strong leadership of Captain John Smith) • Arrival of two supply ships • Self-sustaining Agriculture
Review! • What country did they come from? • Where is this country located? On what continent? • What kinds of people made this journey? • Why did they journey over to the New World (4 main reasons)? • When did the settlers land in the • New World? What do we know about the first group of English settlers that sailed to Jamestown?
The first settlers were menof wealth. These English men of wealth are called GENTLEMEN!
Why do you think only men and boys were selected to make the journey over to the New World? • Do you think any other types of people journeyed to the New World?
Jamestown became a more diverse colony by 1620. • Women arrived in the Jamestown colony • Africans arrived in the Jamestown colony • Diversity: Difference or variety
Women’s Arrival at Jamestown • In 1620, close to 90 unmarried women arrived at Jamestown. • Male settlers at Jamestown paid for the women's passages over to the New World. • Women traveled over on “The Bride Ship” • Women helped with cooking, sewing, and housework