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CANKAYA UNIVERSITY OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES -ENGLISH UNIT-. ENERGY AND NON-OPEC DEVELOPING COUNTRIES FOR ENG 205 COURSE WEEK 7. WARM-UP. Do you agree or disagree with the statement?Why? “When we run out of petrol, we (human beings) will again be on horseback.”.

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cankaya university office of basic and elective courses english unit
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES-ENGLISH UNIT-

ENERGY AND NON-OPEC

DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

FOR ENG 205 COURSE

WEEK 7

warm up
WARM-UP
  • Do you agree or disagree with the statement?Why?

“When we run out of petrol, we (human beings) will again be on horseback.”

organization of petroleum exporting countries
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
  • OPEC is an intergovernmental organization of twelve developing countries made up of Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. OPEC has maintained its headquarters in Vienna since 1965, and hosts regular meetings among the oil ministers of its Member Countries. It is considered to be one of the most effective Organisation in the World.
the function of opec
The function of OPEC
  • One of the principal goals is the determination of the best means for safeguarding the organization's interests, individually and collectively. It also pursues ways and means of ensuring the stabilization of prices in international oil markets with a view to eliminating harmful and unnecessary fluctuations; giving due regard at all times to the interests of the producing nations and to the necessity of securing a steady income to the producing countries; an efficient and regular supply of petroleum to consuming nations, and a fair return on their capital to those investing in the petroleum industry.
non opec production
Non-OPEC Production
  • The U.S. Energy Department's Energy Information Agency (EIA) said seven of the world's fifteen largest oil producers are outside of OPEC. As of 2006, those countries were Russia, the United States, China, Mexico, Canada, Norway, and Brazil. Britain had been on the EIA's list as of 2004, but production has continued to decline significantly in the North Sea.
vocabulary items
Vocabulary items
  • swiftly (adv.): quickly

e.g: Alice dressed swiftly.

e.g: Turkish economy is “growing” swiftly.

  • outpace (v.): to go faster, do better, or develop more quickly than someone or something else

e.g: Job openings were outpacing the supply of qualified workers.

e.g: He easily outpaced the other runners.

e.g: Demand isoutpacing production.

vocabulary items1
Vocabulary items
  • capital (n.): a large amount of money that is invested or is used to start a business

e.g: To set up a business with astarting capital of £100 000 seems a bit risky.

e.g: The government wants to attract foreign capital.

  • expenditure (n.): the act of spending or using money; an amount of money spent

e.g: Public/Military/Government expenditure

e.g: The government plans to increase expenditure on health.

e.g: The budget provided for a total expenditure of £27 billion.

vocabulary items2
Vocabulary items
  • loan (n.): money that an organization such as a bank lends and sb borrows

e.g: bank loans with low interest rates

e.g: It took three years to repay my student loan (= money lent to a student).

e.g: a car loan (= a loan to buy a car)

  • exporter (n.): a person, company or country that sells goods to another country

e.g: the world’s largest / major / leading exporter of cars

e.g: The country is now a net exporter of fuel (= it exports more than it imports).

vocabulary items3
Vocabulary items
  • import (v.): to bring a product, a service, an idea, etc. into one country from another

e.g: The country has to import most of its raw materials.

e.g: goods imported from Japan into the US

e.g: customs imported from the West

  • renewable (adj.): (of energy and natural resources) that is replaced naturally or controlled carefully and can therefore be used without the risk of finishing it all

e.g: renewable sources of energy such as wind and solar power

vocabulary items4
Vocabulary items
  • drawback (n.): a disadvantage or problem that makes sth a less attractive idea

e.g: The main drawback to it is the cost.

e.g: This is the one major drawback of the new system.

  • disruption (n.): a situation in which sth is prevented from continuing in its usual way

e.g: We aim to help you move house with minimum disruption to yourself.

e.g: disruptions to rail services

e.g: The strike caused serious disruptions.

vocabulary items5
Vocabulary items
  • exploit (v.): to develop or use minerals, forests, oil, etc. For business or industry

e.g: the urgent need to exploit the sources of the Irısh Sea

e.g: countries exploiting the rainforests for hardwood

e.g: No minerals have yet been exploited in Antarctica.

  • infrastructure (n.): the basic systems and structures that a country or organizaiton needs in order to work properly, for example roads, railways, etc.

e.g: Some countries lack a suitable economic infrastructure.

vocabulary items6
Vocabulary items
  • panacea (n.): something that will solve all the problems of a particular situation(syn. cure, solution)

e.g: There is no panacea for the country’s economic problems.

  • commercial (adj.): [only before noun] making or intended to make a profit:

e.g: The movie was not a commercial success (= did not make money).

e.g: Gibsons failed to see the commercial value of his discovery.

vocabulary items7
Vocabulary items
  • indigenous (adj.): belonging to a particular place rather than coming to it from somewhere else

e.g: the indigenous peoples / languages of the area

e.g: The kangaroo is indigenous to Australia.

e.g: Blueberries are indigenous to America.

text wording
Text wording

increase faster than

  • “outpace” in para. 1 means
  • “endowment” in para. 2 probably means
  • “indigenous” in para. 3 probably means
  • “great” in para. 3 can replace the word
  • “likelihood” in para. 5 means
  • “panacea” in para.5 means

possession

domestic

significant(ly)

probability

solution

cohesive links
Cohesive links

non-opec developing nations

  • “these nations” in para. 1 refers to
  • “this role” in para. 1 refers to
  • “others” in para. 3 are
  • “each alternative” in para. 4 refers to

important role in energy markets

other non-opec developing countries

imported fossil fuels, nuclear fission and renewable resources

general comprehension questions
General comprehension questions
  • What does the abbreviation NODC mean?

Answer: Non-OPEC developing countries

  • How are the NODCs turning their attention to their domestic resources? Give an example from the text.

Answer: More than a dozen non-OPEC developing countries are currently net oil or gas explorers.

general comprehension questions1
General comprehension questions
  • Why do they tend to try native resources?

Answer: Many NODCs are relatively unexplored for fossil fuel resources, they can contribute to future world petroleum supply.

  • How can the World Bank encourage them to explore their own resources?

Answer: By granting them low interest loans for exploration and development of petroleum, natural gas and coal.

fill in the blanks
Fill in the blanks

disruption

  • Economic crises can cause .......................... in public services.
  • Some African countries applied to the .................... to get a ..................... with low interest.
  • The Municipality will have to allocate more money to improve the ....................... of the city.

World Bank

loan

infrastructure

slide22

THANK YOU!!!

IT IS ALL GREEK TO ME!

FRANSIZ KALMAK