European Union - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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European Union

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  1. European Union An emerging political system?

  2. 2007-01-01, EU enlargement • Romania and Bulgaria joined the EU • Now the EU includes 27 countries

  3. Comparison: EU vs. US • Land area • European Union is less than half the size of the United States • Population • European Union has 516 million residents • GDP (purchasing power parity) • US$13 trillion • EU exports more but imports less than US

  4. European Union • A family of democratic European countries • not a State intended to replace existing state • more than any other international organization • Member states • set up common institutions • delegate some of their sovereignty

  5. European Union • More than an economic organization or trading bloc • Three pillars (or spheres) of activities • trade and economic matters • justice and home affairs • foreign and security policy • most controversial aspect of EU today

  6. Outline • How and why did the EU emerge? • What are its main decision-making bodies? • Progress of European integration • bursts of growth • broadening (add new members) • deepening (add new powers) • stagnation, doubts, and criticisms

  7. “Europe Day” (1950) • Destruction of World War II • 1950-05-09 “Europe Day” • Schuman (Fr.) proposed an organized Europe to maintain peace

  8. ECSC (1951) • European Coal and Steel Community • 6 members: Belgium, West Germany, Luxembourg, France, Italy, and the Netherlands

  9. European Economic Community • Same 6 countries as in ECSC • Treaties of Rome (1957) • European Atomic Energy Community • European Economic Community • remove trade barriers • form common market

  10. Merge of 3 communities (1967) • 1967, executives of ECSC, EURATOM, and EEC were merged • one single Commission • one single Council of Ministers • European Parliament • members chosen by national parliaments • directly elected every 5 years since 1979

  11. Enlargement (1973 - 1995) • 1973 • Denmark, Ireland, and the United Kingdom • 1981 • Greece • 1986 • Spain and Portugal • 1995 • Austria, Finland, and Sweden

  12. Creation of European Union • Treaty on European Union was signed in Maastricht in 1992 • add to the existing “Community” system • inter-government cooperation between member states • justice and home affairs • foreign and security policy

  13. Single Market • free movement of • goods • services • people • and capital • formally completed by January 1, 1993 • passport and customs checks were abolished at most of the internal borders

  14. Single Currency • Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) • exchange rate stability • interest rates, the budget deficit, the inflation rate, and the debt-to-GDP ratio • When the euro was launched in 1999, the European Central Bank (ECB) took over full responsibility for monetary policy throughout the euro area

  15. Monetary Union: Stage III • European Central Bank be set up • exchange rates between participating currencies be fixed once and for all • single currency be introduced for the administrations and the banks • coins and notes of the single currency be in circulation on January 1, 2002 at the latest

  16. Introduction of the Euro • 2002-01-01

  17. EU enlargement • Three main criteria that countries have to meet before being eligible to begin negotiations to join the EU (1997) • establishment of a functioning and stable democratic regime • market-oriented capitalist economy • acceptance of the 80,000 pages of laws and regulations already on the EU’s books

  18. EU enlargement • Ten countries joined the EU in 2004 • former communist countries • Poland, Hungry, Czech, Slovakia, & Slovenia • former Soviet republics • Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania • Mediterranean islands • Cyprus and Malta • Two countries joined the EU in 2007

  19. EU applicant countries • Two candidate countries • Turkey and Croatia • Entry negotiations formally began in 2005 • An application for membership submitted by Macedonia was formally accepted by EU leaders in 2005 • The EU is now looking at further enlargements in the Western Balkans

  20. Other problems • Few people identify themselves first as European. • Key EU organizations are still superficial • Democratic deficit • Lack of common language