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Strategies for Teaching Anatomy & Physiology. Hugh W. Harling EdD, LAT, ATC Methodist College, Fayetteville NC Overview. Learning Process Critical Thinking Text / Book Based Resources Internet Resources Fun Ideas / Explanations

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strategies for teaching anatomy physiology

Strategies for Teaching Anatomy & Physiology

Hugh W. Harling EdD, LAT, ATC

Methodist College, Fayetteville NC

  • Learning Process
  • Critical Thinking
  • Text / Book Based Resources
  • Internet Resources
  • Fun Ideas / Explanations
  • Q & A
  • Process of change
  • Acquisition of new knowledge, skills or attitudes
  • From study or life experiences
  • Occurs over a period of time
  • Lifelong process
  • American Red Cross Fundamentals of Instructor Training, 2001
  • Motivation
  • Association
  • Repetition
  • Senses
  • American Red Cross Fundamentals of Instructor Training, 2001
  • Any suggestions here I would appreciate !
  • Difficult since students come to class with variety of backgrounds.
  • One of the hardest things to do is motivate ALL students.
  • Even harder to sustain motivation – everyone has good days and bad.
  • Contract for Grade ?
  • One of the big keys to learning.
  • Describes how things fit together and effect each other.
  • Often Study systems in isolation and fail to connect from one to others.
  • As we know, when one system of the body fails, it affects the others, some very quickly (AMI) others very slowly (Osteoporosis)
  • No substitute for repetition
  • Athletes spend hours fielding, throwing or hitting, … They are training their BRAIN and body.
  • You are asking your students to train their brains and one must practice to be able to perform when needed.
  • The more hands-on the better
  • More about this later
technology has limits
Technology has limits ?
  • Free iPods for Duke studentsCollege says popular MP3 music players will be used to download lectures and books as well as songs.
  • Stretch students
use games
Use games
  • Brings out competitiveness / pre-test preparation
  • Jeopardy – multiple levels, teams
  • Word Search
  • Newspaper accuracies & inaccuracies (Bonus points ?)
  • Wrong word use – correction
  • Crossword puzzles
  • Songs / sayings – let them make up their own
use pictures video dvd
Use Pictures & Video / DVD
  • A picture (or graph, or…) is worth a thousand words
  • Make use of textbook graphic packages
  • Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ( Aclund’s Atlas of Human Anatomy
textbook resources
Textbook Resources
  • Scott & Fong, Body Structures and Functions
  • Delmar's Anatomy & Physiology Challenge CD-ROM included free with each book.
  • Gross anatomy photos with the line illustrations presented throughout the book for a side-by-side comparison.
  • New Online Companion includes exercises, quizzes, animations, and additional teaching hints. A Powerpoint presentation with 25-30 slides per chapter is also included.
  • Lab Activities have been added to each chapter to bring a new interactive dimension to learning.
textbook resources1
Textbook Resources
  • Gary A. Thibodeau, PhD; and Kevin T. Patton, PhD, The Human Body in Health & Disease
  • Included FREE with the softcover text is Body Spectrum: Mosby's Electronic Anatomy Coloring Book CD-ROM
  • Study Guide - Designed to help students master basic anatomy and physiology, this study guide provides students with additional self-study aids, including chapter overviews, topic reviews, application and labeling exercises, as well as answers to the questions.
  • Softcover text includes FREE CD-ROM and MERLIN website Study Guide by Swisher
other text resources
Other Text Resources
  • Anatomy Coloring Book
  • Physiology Coloring Book
  • Memory Notebook of Nursing: A collection of Visual Images and Mnemonics to increase memory and learning (Zerwekh, Claborn & Miller, ISBN 0-9628210-5-5)
  • CD-ROMs – textbook, ADAM, …
evaluate your sources
Evaluate Your Sources
  • Information versus marketing – blurring
  • Pharmaceutical ads – are they informational or ads or both.
  • Skepticism should hold true for the internet just like TV – if it is to good to be true it probably is just that or very expensive.
evaluate your sources1
Evaluate Your Sources
  • Does the author have authority on the topic?
  • What are the author’s credentials?
  • Is the information accurate for when it was written?
  • Is there a consensus of opinion on this topic?
  • What are the important ideas?
  • What is the purpose of the source?
  • Is the purpose to inform, to entertain, to teach, or to influence?
evaluate your sources2
Evaluate Your Sources
  • Who is the author writing for?
  • Is it biased in any way?
  • Has the author looked at the material objectively?
  • Does the author offer several points of view?
  • How does the source help answer your question?
  • Does the source provide valuable, relevant information?
  • Google Search – Anatomy - 5,130,000 for Anatomy (0.16 seconds)
  • Froogle Search – Anatomy - 27,000 confirmed / 204,000 total results for Anatomy. (0.46 seconds)
  • Google Search - Physiology - 6,150,000 for Physiology (0.14 seconds)
  • Froogle Search - Physiology - 4,280 confirmed / 101,000 total results for Physiology. (0.58 seconds)
numerous useful websites
Numerous Useful Websites
  • Teach Strategies Newsletter
  • Advances in Physiology Education
  • Visible Human
more helpful internet websites
More Helpful Internet Websites
  • Emory Medical School – Biological & Physical Sciences
  • Radiology -
  • Radiology -
  • Anatomy of the Eye
multiple organ system quiz
Multiple Organ System Quiz
  • University of Minnesota WebAnatomy
using other people s listings
Using Other People’s Listings
  • British Association of Clinical Anatomists
  • Need appropriate key to enter room just as certain molecules need doorways (channels) and keys (carrier protein) to enter a cell.
  • Alter key and door no longer opens (insulin – diabetes)
idea time gi
Idea Time - GI
  • Sock or stockinette & golf balls – Shows peristalsis
  • Chew food and swallow – shows why chew and cut foods – Fill “stomach”
  • Open end of sock now Pyloric Sphincter – can’t empty entire contents at once, but one piece at a time.
  • Can now discuss what is added by what to tract to break stuff down.
idea time cardiac
Idea Time - Cardiac
  • PVC pipe - clogging of artery same as how a drain clogs with hair, grim, … Happens over time, …
  • Use playdough for plaque build-up
    • Critical thinking what would cause the clog ?
    • How long to show versus completely clog ?
    • If clog shifts / breaks free now anatomically what is called , where will it go, …?
    • By-pass – cut section out and reroute
    • Use drain cleaner to represent drugs
    • Use pipe (or bottle cleaner) to represent angioblasty
idea time respiratory system
Idea Time – Respiratory System
  • Balloons & Garbage bag
  • Balloons represent alveoli and garbage bag the lung.
  • Pop balloon lose capacity (alveoli) but lung stays inflated
  • Use water in balloon to represent mucous or debris
  • Two Garbage bags hold corners of outermost, suck in inner (Pneumothorax)
idea time filtration diffusion
Idea Time – Filtration / Diffusion
  • Filtration occurs through the body (Liver, Kidneys, Spleen, nutrients from blood into cells, …)
  • Rocks over drain – small materials slip in and out of vascular system and large (proteins must stay in) unless can change shape –
  • Can also use a mesh screen formed like a tube to show flow into or out of (Tube within a tube)
  • Watch out for the mess
  • Classic Experiment
  • Color / matter moves from high concentration toward areas of low concentration.
  • Food coloring (or tea – sun tea anyone ?) into water
idea time musculoskeletal system
Idea Time – Musculoskeletal System
  • 1 rope – pulling hand over hand like bring up anchor
  • 2 Ropes and four groups
  • One group back to back each holding pull (shorten toward each other – representing accordion action)
ideas from others
Ideas from Others
  • Cell – light colored jello in cup – add candies to represent different organelles
  • Layers of skin – cake or jello & cool wipe.
bridging summarizing
Bridging & Summarizing
  • Bridging – connecting concepts
  • Summarizing – bring together facts & concepts
    • MUST bring example back to its technical terminology
    • Will often remember the example but not why it was done or exactly what it showed
    • Remember, Everyone will experience the lesson differently.
final stop
Final Stop
  • Methodist College Athletic Training Website
  • American Red Cross. (2001). Fundamentals of Instructor Training.
  • Bailey, D. (1997). Research for the Health Professional: A Practical Guide, Second Edition. F.A. Davis.
  • Blessing, J. (2001). Physician Assistant’s Guide to Research and Medical Literature. F.A. Davis.
  • Zybeck, K. Methodist College Reference Librarian, Portions Adapted from: Teaching Information Literacy. Burkhardt, MacDonald, and Rathemacher. Chicago: ALA, 2003