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Comprehension Strategies. Kimberly Noble Staff Development Specialist DCIU. Objectives. To get “what” comprehension is To get “who” teaches comprehension To get the “why” of teaching comprehension To get the “how” of teaching comprehension To get “when” you should teach comprehension.

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comprehension strategies

Comprehension Strategies

Kimberly Noble

Staff Development Specialist


  • To get “what” comprehension is
  • To get “who” teaches comprehension
  • To get the “why” of teaching comprehension
  • To get the “how” of teaching comprehension
  • To get “when” you should teach comprehension
the montillation of traxoline
The Montillation Of Traxoline

It is very important that you learn about traxoline. Traxoline is a new form of zionter. It is montilled in Ceristanna. The Ceristannians gristeriate large amounts of fevon and then bracter it to quasel traxoline. Traxoline may well be one of our must lukized snezlaus in the future because of our zionter lescelidge.

1. 1. What is a traxoline?

 2. Where is traxoline montilled?

3. How is traxoline quaselled?

 4. Why is it important to know about traxoline?

  • Why teach comprehension strategies
  • Overview of the strategies
  • In-depth study of strategies
  • Lunch
  • In-depth study cont’d
  • Closure
what is comprehension
What is comprehension?

Reading is a dynamic process in which the reader interacts with the text to construct meaning. Inherent in constructing meaning is the reader’s ability to activate prior knowledge, use reading strategies and adapt to the reading situation.

components of reading instruction
Components of Reading Instruction
  • The Big 5 Reading Ideas
    • Phonological/Phonemic Awareness
    • Alphabetic Principle
    • Vocabulary/Background Knowledge
    • Text Comprehension
    • Fluency
confounding problems in reading comprehension
Confounding Problems in Reading Comprehension
  • Matthew Effects
    • The rich get richer, the poor get poorer
  • Motivation
    • Frustration abounds
  • Accessing content in texts
    • Everyone should be taught comprehension, even those with low decoding skills
    • Teacher-guided manipulation of text
reading myths
Reading Myths
  • Myth #1: As long as students can decode text fluently, they will naturally come to understand what they read.
  • Myth #2: Having students read a lot will improve comprehension.
  • Myth #3: Answering questions at the end of the chapter is teaching reading comprehension.
  • Myth #4: Reading comprehension is the domain of language arts and English teachers.
national reading panel findings
National Reading Panel Findings
  • 7 Research based comprehension strategies
    • Comprehension monitoring
    • Cooperative Learning
    • Use of graphic and semantic organizers (including story maps)
    • Question answering
    • Question generating
    • Story structure
    • Summarization
six language systems
Six Language Systems
  • Pragmatic
  • Schematic
  • Semantic
  • Syntactic
  • Lexical
  • Grapho-phonic
findings cont d
Findings cont’d
  • Two additional strategies that have received some support from research
    • Making use of prior knowledge
    • Using mental imagery
  • Multiple-strategy use is most effective.
  • Put Reading First synthesized information gleamed
findings cont d14
Findings cont’d
  • Comprehension strategies are specific procedures that guide students to become aware of how well they are comprehending as they attempt to read and write.
  • The teaching of a variety of strategies leads to increased learning of the strategies, to specific transfer of learning, to increased retention and understanding of new passages, and in some cases, to general improvement in comprehension.
strategic teaching
Strategic Teaching
  • Must be explicit, or direct
    • Teachers tell readers why and when they should use strategies, what strategies to use, and how to apply them.
  • The strategic teacher is one who:
    • is a thinker and decision maker;
    • possesses a rich knowledge base;
    • is a modeler and a mediator of instruction.
definition of strategic instruction and strategy
Definition of Strategic Instruction and Strategy
  • Strategic Instruction
    • A strategy-oriented approach to teaching, one in which strategies are taught to students.
  • Strategy
    • An individual approach to a task. Helps you determine how to do something effectively and efficiently on your own.
differentiating strategies from knowledge and skills
Differentiating Strategies from Knowledge and Skills
  • Knowledge
    • Information you have.
  • Skills
    • Something you can do.
  • Strategy
    • A deliberate attempt to use knowledge and skills.
kinds of reading comprehension strategies
Kinds of Reading Comprehension Strategies
  • Goal-specific strategies
    • The techniques readers use to process specific material.
  • Monitoring strategies
    • Techniques to know how the reader is doing with comprehension
  • Higher-order sequencing strategies
    • Super organizers which help the user put the strategic package together; a combination.
gradual release of responsibility
Gradual Release of Responsibility

Modeled Shared Guided Independent

Teacher Ownership Student Ownership

gradual release of responsibility model
Gradual Release of Responsibility Model
  • Step 1: Showing the kids how.
  • Step 2: Think aloud
gradual release of responsibility model21
Gradual Release of Responsibility Model
  • Step 3: Have at it.
  • Step 4: Letting go.
what is a crafting session
What is a Crafting Session
  • AKA The Mini-lesson
  • What is a Crafting Session?
  • Deep Structure vs. Surface Structure
anchor charts
Anchor Charts
  • Highlighting an inquiry or a process so the readers in your classroom can see the construction of meaning making lies in their hands.
  • Need chart paper, easel, marker, space to store:
    • flip chart
    • clothesline
  • Examples are provided for each strategy in this presentation.
think alouds
Think Alouds
  • Teachers verbalize own thoughts while reading aloud
  • Demonstrate strategies that good readers use
  • Model how to think aloud
  • Train students to be able to think aloud independently
what is strategic reading
What is Strategic Reading
  • Use Before, During. And After (BDA)
    • Reading Strategy Inventory
    • Questions to help children become strategic readers
    • Questions I can ask as I read
    • Modeling and Question Frames for Developing Strategic Listening and Reading Abilities
  • What makes a good reader
strategic reading
Strategic Reading
  • Good readers are purposeful
  • Good readers are active
  • Good readers use metacognition (think about their thinking)
  • Good readers are aware of what they do understand, what they do not understand, and use appropriate strategies to resolve problems when reading.

Think about



Ask Questions









Be a




mosaic of thought
Mosaic of Thought
  • The Mother of Comprehension Instruction resources
  • Written by Ellin Oliver Keene and Susan Zimmerman
  • Takes research from PEBC out of Denver and Pearson, Roehler, Dole, and Duffy (1992)
strategies in mosaic of thought
Strategies in Mosaic of Thought
  • Determining Importance in Text
  • Evoking Images
  • Inferring
  • Monitoring Meaning
  • Questioning
  • Using Relevant Prior Knowledge or Schema
  • Synthesis
other resources to teach the strategies
Other Resources to Teach the Strategies
  • Mrs. Fix-Up
    • Good Readers Under Construction
  • 7 Strategy Graphic Organizers
  • Literature Circles
  • Strategies that Work (Harvey and Goudvis)
  • Reading with Meaning (Miller)
  • I Read It, But I Don’t Get It (Tovani)
fix up strategies33
Fix-up Strategies
  • Make a list of strategies with the class of things to do if you get stuck
  • All of today’s strategies count as fix-ups
  • Good readers make mistakes, but better readers figure out ways to self-correct
robert the reader
Robert the Reader
  • Activity: Read the description of Robert the Reader and create a visual with your group.
  • Hint: You are synthesizing all of the strategies previously overviewed.
  • Thinking about thinking
  • Is imperative for all strategies
  • “Invisible little me”
  • Think Along Process
  • Learning Logs
  • Read, Cover, Remember, Retell
schema making connections
Schema/Making Connections
  • Text to Self
  • Text to Text
  • Text to World
  • Coding the text
  • Activity: Read Graves’ excerpt; make all three connections.
  • Author Schema
  • Text Type Schema
  • Activity: Determine Author’s style and text features.
activating prior knowledge
Activating Prior Knowledge
  • Anticipation Guide
  • Prereading Plan (PreP)
  • ABC Brainstorm

What do you Know?

What do you Wonder?

What can you use as a Source?


Encyclopedia CD-ROM

Library Books

Matthew, our dinosaur expert

Dinosaurs are not around anymore.

Some are meat-eaters and some are plant-eaters.

How big were their teeth?

What kind of meat did they eat?

sensory imagery visualization47
Sensory Imagery/Visualization
  • Activity: Gary Paulsen piece; make whole group anchor chart
  • Handouts
  • Activity: Photograph biographies
  • Asking questions BDA
  • QAR
  • Reciprocal Teaching
  • OWL
  • Question Starters
  • Thick and Thin questions
  • Coding the text
inferring predicting
  • Difference between inferring and predicting Clues from the text + background knowledge = inference (looking back) prediction (looking ahead)
  • Coding the text
  • Activity: Strange Object
  • Activity: Poetry
  • Riddles
inferring predicting cont d
Inferring/Predicting cont’d
  • Guess the Covered Word
  • Predict-o-Gram
  • Prediction Guides
  • P.L.A.N.
determining importance
Determining Importance
  • Fiction vs. Nonfiction
  • Coding the text
  • V.I.P.
  • What is Important?
  • Focusing on Important Ideas
  • Text Frames
  • Open-ended questions
  • Reading for answers to specific questions
determining importance cont d
Determining Importance cont’d
  • Search and Find
  • Nonfiction Conventions Notebook
synthesis summarization
  • Summary + Prior Knowledge = Synthesis
  • A combination of all strategies
  • Story elements
  • Evolving thinking- constant, not just at the end
synthesis summary activities
Synthesis/Summary Activities
  • Coding
  • I’m thinking… Now I’m thinking…
  • GIST
  • Someone Wanted But So
  • Think Writing
  • Written Conversation
  • Say Something
activities cont d
Activities cont’d
  • Group Summarizing
  • Pairs Read
  • Partner Retelling Activity
  • Climatic Events
  • Event/Story Pyramid
  • Story Mapping through Circular Pictures
  • Reflective Sharing
how to choose good text for crafting lessons
How to Choose Good Text for Crafting Lessons
  • Use book databases (see handouts)
  • The story should have rich language and illustrations
  • The story should be meaningful to you as the model and to the students
  • The story should be previewed ahead of time and put post-its where thoughts arise.
letting go
Letting Go
  • Give it a try in your classroom.
  • Remember, we learn by doing and teaching others.
  • If you have any questions, you can call me at 610-938-9000 x2141 or email me at
  • Through the IU, I am available to do school in-services on a variety of topics, as well as an extension of this one. Have your school contact person call me.
a dog s story

A Dog’s Story









Once upon a ________, there was a _______ named Alphie. Alphie was big and _______.

He was such a _________ and always did funny things. He once fell off the _______. Alphie also _________ for his toys when they were stuck. He even got himself stuck in the ____________. Alphie was loved by his _______ and got fed lots of _______. The End