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Gas Turbine Technologies for Electric Generation. by Rob Shepard, P.E. www.Neel-Schaffer.com rob.shepard@neel-schaffer.com. Gas Turbine Basics. Gas Turbines Types How They Work Applications Components of Plant Flow Paths Operation. Gas Turbine Applications. Simple Cycle

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Gas Turbine Technologies

for Electric Generation

byRob Shepard, P.E.

www.Neel-Schaffer.com

rob.shepard@neel-schaffer.com

gas turbine basics
Gas Turbine Basics
  • Gas Turbines
    • Types
    • How They Work
    • Applications
    • Components of Plant
    • Flow Paths
    • Operation

2

gas turbine applications
Gas Turbine Applications
  • Simple Cycle
  • Combined Cycle
  • Cogeneration

3

types of gas turbine plants
Types of Gas Turbine Plants
  • Simple Cycle
    • Operate When Demand is High – Peak Demand
    • Operate for Short / Variable Times
    • Designed for Quick Start-Up
    • Not designed to be Efficient but Reliable
      • Not Cost Effective to Build for Efficiency
  • Combined Cycle
    • Operate for Peak and Economic Dispatch
    • Designed for Quick Start-Up
    • Designed to Efficient, Cost-Effective Operation
    • Typically Has Ability to Operate in SC Mode

4

principles of operation
Principles ofOperation
  • Open Cycle

Also referred to as simple cycle)

  • The energy contained in a flowing ideal gas is the sum of enthalpy and kinetic energy.
  • Pressurized gas can store or release energy. As it expands the pressure is converted to kinetic energy.

Link to picture

5

thermodynamic fundamentals
Thermodynamic Fundamentals
  • Pressure Ratio & CT Components

7

principles of operation1
Principles of Operation

Compressor

  • As air flows into the compressor, energy is transferred from its rotating blades to the air. Pressure and temperature of the air increase.
  • Most compressors operate in the range of 75% to 85% efficiency.

Combustor

  • The purpose of the combustor is to increase the energy stored in the compressor exhaust by raising its temperature.

Turbine

  • The turbine acts like the compressor in reverse with respect to energy transformation.
  • Most turbines operate in the range of 80% to 90% efficiency.

9

principles of operation overall energy transformations thermal efficiency
Principles of OperationOverall Energy Transformations (Thermal Efficiency)
  • Useful Work = Energy released in turbine minus energy absorbed by compressor.

The compressor requires typically approximately 50% of the energy released by the turbine.

  • Overall Thermal Efficiency =

Useful Work/Fuel Chemical Energy *100

Typical overall thermal efficiencies of a combustion turbine are 20% - 40%.

10

gas turbine applications1
Gas Turbine Applications
  • Simple Cycle

Link to picture

11

gas turbine components systems cont d
Gas Turbine Components & Systems (cont’d)
  • Exhaust System
    • Simple Cycle Stack
    • Transition to HRSG
  • Generator
    • Open-Air cooled
    • TEWAC
    • Hydrogen Cooled
  • Starting Systems
    • Diesel
    • Motor
    • Static
  • Combustion System
    • Silo, Cannular, Annular
    • Water, Steam, DLN
  • Turbine
    • Multiple Shaft, Single Shaft
    • Number of Stages
    • Material and Manufacturing Processes

Paper Towel thru compressor

16

combustion turbine fuels
Combustion Turbine Fuels
  • Conventional Fuels
    • Natural Gas
    • Liquid Fuel Oil
  • Nonconventional Fuels
    • Crude Oil
    • Refinery Gas
    • Propane
  • Synthetic Fuels
    • Chemical Process
    • Physical Process

17

gas turbine types
Gas Turbine Types
  • Advanced Heavy-Duty Units
  • Advanced Aeroderivative Units

19

gas turbine major sections
Gas Turbine Major Sections
  • Air Inlet
  • Compressor
  • Combustion System
  • Turbine
  • Exhaust
  • Support Systems

20

ge lm2500 aeroderivative gas turbine
GE LM2500 Aeroderivative Gas Turbine

Power Turbine Section

Compressor Turbine Section

Compressor

30

aeroderivative versus heavy duty combustion turbines
Aeroderivative Versus Heavy Duty Combustion Turbines
  • Aeroderivatives
    • Higher Pressure Ratios and Firing Temperatures Result in Higher Power Output per Pound of Air Flow
    • Smaller Chilling/Cooling Systems Required
    • Compressor Inlet Temperature Has a Greater Impact on Output and Heat Rate
    • Benefits of Chilling/Cooling Systems are More Pronounced

38

typical simple cycle ct plant components
Typical Simple Cycle CT Plant Components
  • Prime Mover (Combustion Turbine)
  • Fuel Supply & Preparation
  • Emissions Control Equipment
  • Generator
  • Electrical Switchgear
  • Generator Step Up Transformer
  • Starting System (Combustion Turbines)
  • Auxiliary Cooling
  • Fire Protection
  • Lubrication System

39

typical peaking plant components
Typical Peaking Plant Components

GSU

Generator

Lube Oil System

Switchgear / MCC

Starting Engine

Fire Protection

40

combining the brayton and rankine cycles
Combining the Brayton and Rankine Cycles
  • Gas Turbine Exhaust used as the heat source for the Steam Turbine cycle
  • Utilizes the major efficiency loss from the Brayton cycle
  • Advantages:
    • Relatively short cycle to design, construct & commission
    • Higher overall efficiency
    • Good cycling capabilities
    • Fast starting and loading
    • Lower installed costs
    • No issues with ash disposal or coal storage
  • Disadvantages
    • High fuel costs
    • Uncertain long term fuel source
    • Output dependent on ambient temperature

41

how does a combined cycle plant work
How does a Combined Cycle Plant Work?

Picture courtesy of Nooter/Eriksen

42

combined cycles today
Combined Cycles Today
  • Plant Efficiency ~ 58-60 percent
    • Biggest losses are mechanical input to the compressor and heat in the exhaust
  • Steam Turbine output
    • Typically 50% of the gas turbine output
    • More with duct-firing
  • Net Plant Output (Using Frame size gas turbines)
    • up to 750 MW for 3 on 1 configuration
    • Up to 520 MW for 2 on 1 configuration
  • Construction time about 24 months
  • Engineering time 80k to 130k labor hours
  • Engineering duration about 12 months
  • Capital Cost ($900-$1100/kW)
  • Two (2) versus Three (3) Pressure Designs
    • Larger capacity units utilize the additional drums to gain efficiency at the expense of higher capital costs

44

combined cycle efficiency
Combined Cycle Efficiency
  • Simple cycle efficiency (max ~ 44%*)
  • Combined cycle efficiency (max ~58-60%*)
  • Correlating Efficiency to Heat Rate (British Units)
    • h= 3412/(Heat Rate) --> 3412/h = Heat Rate*
    • Simple cycle – 3412/.44 = 7,757 Btu/Kwh*
    • Combined cycle – 3412/.58 = 5,884 Btu/Kwh*
  • Correlating Efficiency to Heat Rate (SI Units)
    • h= 3600/(Heat Rate) --> 3600/h = Heat Rate*
    • Simple cycle – 3600/.44 = 8,182 KJ/Kwh*
    • Combined cycle – 3600/.58 = 6,207 KJ/Kwh*
  • Practical Values
    • HHV basis, net output basis
    • Simple cycle 7FA (new and clean) 10,860 Btu/Kwh (11,457 KJ/Kwh)
    • Combined cycle 2x1 7FA (new and clean) 6,218 Btu/Kwh (6,560 KJ/Kwh)

*Gross LHV basis

45

gas turbine generator performance
Gas Turbine Generator Performance

Factors that Influence Performance

  • Fuel Type, Composition, and Heating Value
  • Load (Base, Peak, or Part)
  • Compressor Inlet Temperature
  • Atmospheric Pressure
  • Inlet Pressure Drop
    • Varies significantly with types of air cleaning/cooling
  • Exhaust Pressure Drop
    • Affected by addition of HRSG, SCR, CO catalysts
  • Steam or Water Injection Rate
    • Used for either power augmentation or NOx control
  • Relative Humidity

46

cogeneration plant
Cogeneration Plant
  • A Cogeneration Plant
    • Power generation facility that also provides thermal energy (steam) to a thermal host.
  • Typical thermal hosts
    • paper mills,
    • chemical plants,
    • refineries, etc…
    • potentially any user that uses large quantities of steam on a continuous basis.
  • Good applications for combined cycle plants
    • Require both steam and electrical power

49

major combined cycle plant equipment
Major Combined Cycle Plant Equipment
  • Combustion Turbine (CT/CTG)
  • Steam Generator (Boiler/HRSG)
  • Steam Turbine (ST/STG)
  • Heat Rejection Equipment
  • Air Quality Control System (AQCS) Equipment
  • Electrical Equipment

50

heat rejection equipment condenser
Heat Rejection Equipment - Condenser

Same Function as discussed earlier in Session 9

  • Usually utilizes a cooling tower to reject heat to the atmosphere
  • Rarely uses once through cooling (retrofit applications or ocean)

53

slide54

Questions?

Rob Shepard

Neel-Schaffer, Inc.

www.Neel-Schaffer.com

rob.shepard@neel-schaffer.com

54