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DR. A. S. BAWA DIRECTOR DEFENCE FOOD RESEARCH LABORATORY MYSORE PowerPoint Presentation
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Food Technology for Special Situations. DR. A. S. BAWA DIRECTOR DEFENCE FOOD RESEARCH LABORATORY MYSORE. Food Technology for Special Situations. DFRL is one of the prestigious laboratories of DRDO

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slide1

Food Technology for Special Situations

DR. A. S. BAWA

DIRECTOR

DEFENCE FOOD RESEARCH LABORATORY

MYSORE

slide2

Food Technology for Special Situations

  • DFRL is one of the prestigious laboratories of DRDO
  • It deals with the challenge of providing the troops with wholesome food containing adequate and balanced nourishment
  • Indian army faces one of the biggest challenges in maintaining its troops at one of the world’s toughest battle fields
  • It has altitude of more than 18,000 feet
  • It has to fight not only against the enemy but also against the all odds of nature
slide3

Food Technology for Special Situations

  • At high altitude, troops are exposed to
    • Inclement weather
    • Perilous altitude
    • Difficult terrain and
    • Psychological problems arising out of being away from the main land as well as their near and dear ones
  • Under such circumstances army has to keep its soldiers physically fit and in high morale to fight against the enemy
  • It has to protect the integrity of the nation
  • For that it has to be supplied with palatable, healthy and adequate nutritious food
  • DFRL dealing with the challenge of providing the troops with wholesome food containing adequate and balanced nourishment
slide4

Food Technology for Special Situations

  • Normal body changes at high altitude
  • Certain normal body changes happen in people who travel to high altitude are
    • breathlessness during movement
    • hyperventilation (breathing fast)
    • increase in urination
    • awakening during the night
    • strange dreams etc
  • The best way to avoid illness is gaining height slowing
  • Other measures to help prevent altitude sickness include keeping warm and drinking plenty of water
  • This is because the body needs more water at higher altitudes
  • One has to eat enough even if you don't feel like it
  • A diet high in complex carbohydrates is generally believed to be the best food for high altitudes.
slide5

Food Technology for Special Situations

  • Altitude Illness
  • At high altitude, atmospheric pressure is reduced
  • The consequent reduction in oxygen pressure can lead to hypoxia
  • Altitude sickness mainly occurs at heights above 2500 metres
  • The main indication of altitude sickness during ascent is a painful headache with
    • loss of appetite
    • nausea or vomiting
    • dizziness
    • sleeping problems
    • fatigue or weakness
    • confusion
    • unsteady walking
slide6

Food Technology for Special Situations

  • Altitude Illness
  • The condition occurs because of the body trying to adjust to lower oxygen levels
  • In rare cases, the illness can lead to life threatening conditions such as pulmonary oedema
  • This can cause fluid in the lungs
  • The symptom are breathlessness while resting
      • a persistent cough
      • an unusual chesty sound and
      • cerebral oedema
  • Symptoms of cerebral oedema, can be fatal
  • This happens due to fluid in the brain, include irrational behaviour, confusion and a staggering gait
  • Patients with this condition need immediate evacuation and medical attention.
slide7

Food Technology for Special Situations

  • Ultraviolet radiation from the sun
  • The ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun includes UVA (wavelength 315–400 nm) and UVB (280–315 nm) radiation,
  • Both are damaging to human skin and eyes
  • Exposure to UV radiation, particularly UVB, can produce
    • Severe debilitating sunburn
    • Sunstroke, particularly in light-skinned people
  • Exposure of the eyes may result in acute keratitis
  • Long-term damage leads to the development of cataracts
  • Long-term adverse effects on the skin include: development of skin cancers (carcinomas and malignant melanoma)
  • This is mainly due to UVB radiation
  • Accelerated ageing of the skin is mainly due to UVA radiation, which penetrates more deeply into the skin
slide8

Food Technology for Special Situations

  • Hypothermia
  • Hypothermia occurs when the body loses heat faster more than that it can produce
  • It also happens when the core temperature of the body falls
  • Symptoms of hypothermia are
      • Exhaustion
      • Numb skin (particularly toes and fingers)
      • Shivering
      • Slurred speech
      • Irrational or violent behaviour
      • Lethargy
      • Stumbling
      • Dizzy spells
      • Muscle cramps and
      • Violent bursts of energy
slide9

Food Technology for Special Situations

  • Hypothermia
  • It is best to dress in layers
  • Silk, wool and some of the new artificial fibres are all good insulating materials
  • A strong, waterproof outer layer is essential, as keeping dry is vital
  • Carry basic supplies, including food containing simple sugars to generate heat quickly, and lots of fluid to drink
  • A space blanket is something all travellers in cold climates should carry.
slide10

Food Technology for Special Situations

  • Issues related to food and DFRL’s contributions
  • Normal preparation of Indian style food is extremely difficult at high altitude due to the lack of modern cooking appliances
  • Food supplies to high altitude areas encounter several problems
  • Terrain constraints limit land route and food supplies have to be air dropped
  • This poses the danger of breakage of fragile packaging materials and loss of supplies
  • The efficiency of fuel is decreased by
      • Inclement weather
      • Rarefied atmosphere
      • Low concentration of oxygen at high altitudes
  • This in combination with low boiling point of water leads to delayed cooking
slide11

Food Technology for Special Situations

  • Issues related to food and DFRL’s contributions
  • Troops do not feel like eating and suffer from lack of appetite due to lack of sufficient oxygen and lowered sensory perception
  • In addition to this, they also complain of indigestion on taking foods with higher fat content
  • As a result troops posted at high altitude show preference towards fresh fruits and vegetables
  • Dehydrated foods are also preferred by them due to the light in weight and longer shelf life
  • Taking all these aspects into consideration, DFRL has come up with
      • Retort processed meals ready to eat ration (MRE)
      • Precooked, dehydrated composite pack rations
      • Emergency survival rations
      • All packed in flexible polymeric film and their laminates
      • Besides fresh fruits and vegetables for soldiers at high altitudes.
slide12

Food Technology for Special Situations

  • Issues related to food and DFRL’s contributions
  • The compo pack rations used by army are
      • Full meal compo pack rations, which provide 4100 k cal
      • Supplementary compo pack rations which provide 1430 k cal
      • These encompass a wide variety of convenience food products developed at DFRL
  • It consists of
      • Ready-to-Eat (RTE)
      • Ready-to-Reconstitute (RTR) and Ready-to-Cook kind of convenience foods
      • Some such items developed by DFRL are given below

Chapaties, Parothas, Instant Vegetable Pulav, Instant Khichdi, Instant Curried Dals, Instant Chholey mix, Instant Rajma, Instant Aial mix, Instant Potato Peas Curry, Instant Halwa, Instant Umpa, Instant Neutro Cereal mix, Instant Omelette, Scrambled Egg mixes, Instant Soup Powder, Instant Fruit Juice, Beverage mixes, Instant Vermicelli Kheer mix

slide13

Food Technology for Special Situations

  • RTE Foods.
  • The shelf life of one man compo pack ration and mini compo pack ration are one year
  • The instant food can easily be reconstituted by immersing in hot water for 5-10 min
  • The Technology involved in the ready-to-reconstitute food products (Instant mixes) are flaking technology or freeze thaw dehydration technology
  • The process of flaking technology is based on
      • Precooking
      • Conditioning
      • Flaking
      • Drying under controlled conditions
slide14

Food Technology for Special Situations

  • RTE Foods.
  • The flaking process reduces the case hardening and improves sensory characteristics
  • Freeze thaw dehydration technology involves
      • soaking
      • Pressure cooking
      • Cold conditioning
      • Drying under controlled conditions
  • Reconstitution time 5-10 min. by putting in hot water
  • They are superior to conventionally dried counterparts in colour, flavour, texture and taste
  • All the products have undergone large scale user trials by army units based at high altitude
  • They are highly acceptable and stable for more than a year under ambient conditions
slide15

Food Technology for Special Situations

  • RTE Foods
  • There are technologies and products available for helping the soldiers to accommodate and consume during operations in treacherous terrain and cold whether
  • They are retort processed, shelf stable, ready-to-eat foods in laminates of aluminium with polymeric films
  • Food could be consumed as such or after warming the pouch in boiling water
  • With this intention we have developed a number of traditional Indian foods in such retort pouches
slide16

Food Technology for Special Situations

  • RTE Foods
  • They include, Vegetable Pulav, Vegetable Khichdi, Sooji Halwa, Potato Peas Curry, Mutton Curry, Mutton Pulav, Chicken Pulav, Chicken Curry, Palak Paneer Curry, Avial, Upma, Mixed Vegetable Curry, Alu Choley, Rajma Curry, Noodles etc
  • Many of the retort processed foods products are the basis of Meals Ready-to-Eat (MRE) ration
  • Constituents of MRE rations for Army and Marine Commandoes of Indian Navy provide different menus to avoid monotony
  • The rations are suitable for high altitude region
  • About 1,50,000 such rations were supplied to Army during Kargil conflict.
slide17

Food Technology for Special Situations

  • RTE Foods
  • In meals Ready-to-eat rations, the main constituents of rations are heated by hexamine fuel tablets
  • The process is time consuming and cumbersome in field conditions
  • Hence, simple device to heat the product at different field condition with reduced preparation time is preferable
  • We have developed a Self-heating system called "Thermopack“
  • This is based on a multi step exothermic reaction
  • This is found to be adequate to heat the product from ambient to 65oC within 10-15 minutes
slide18

Food Technology for Special Situations

  • RTE Foods
  • Under sub-zero condition, the system enables to heat the product from -10oC to 40oC
  • The system consists of
      • Heater pad
      • Treated water
      • RTE food pouch
      • Amenities such as needle, blade, paper plate, tissue paper, instruction manual etc
  • The heater pad of the system does not have direct contact with food pouch as they are placed independently
  • The system is user friendly and easy to operate
slide19

Food Technology for Special Situations

Survival Rations

  • DFRL has designed speciality survival rations for Army, Navy and Air Force for use during field operations
  • The army survival ration consists of two survival bars and two types of long life chikkis
  • The ration weighs 500 g. and delivers 2200 k cal
  • The naval survival ration consists of two survival bars in a lot of 600 g to cater to one person for three days
  • The survival bar of Navy is based on calorie rich products formulated from easily digestible carbohydrates
  • It has a shelf life of 3 years
  • We have also designed and developed emergency flying ration
  • This has survival bars weighing 330 g. providing 1320 k cal. for 48 hours
  • These survival rations can also be used in high altitude region
slide20

Food Technology for Special Situations

Survival Rations

  • Supply of fresh fruits and vegetables to high altitude area pose real challenge due to
    • The lack of established roads
    • Presence of hazardous terrain
    • Hostile climatic conditions
  • DFRL has introduced multipurpose plastic crates, pre-treatments and packaging of fresh fruits and vegetables to extend the shelf life of fruits & vegetables
  • The usage of plastic crates is hygienic, economical and minimises the spoilage loss
  • Where as the conventional packaging systems are mulberry baskets
slide21

Food Technology for Special Situations

  • The chemical pre-treatment of fruits and vegetables by washing with chlorine water
      • Selective use of anti-fungal paste and ethylene scavenging sachets for delayed ripening
      • Usage of perforated polyethylene pouches to transport assorted units of fruits and vegetables separately extend the shelf life of different fruits and vegetables by 3-6 days under ambient conditions
  • The minimally processed vegetables have logistic utility and operational convenience to the Armed Forces
slide22

Food Technology for Special Situations

  • They have a shelf-life of 10-14 days under ambient conditions (23-36oC) and 6-8 weeks at low temperatures
  • These Technologies are useful for storage and transportation of various fruits Viz, orange, mousambi, lemon, apple, mango and vegetables such as tomato, carrot, turnip, radish, onion and ginger at high altitude region
  • The shelf stable ready-to-eat fruit slices such as mango, pineapple, banana, papaya, guava, etc., based on hurdle/intermediate moisture technologies with a shelf life of 6-8 months are also useful at high altitude
slide23

Food Technology for Special Situations

  • One of the common complaints of troops placed at high altitude is the lack of appetite
  • This leads to decrease in body weight and indigestion
  • In order to improve their intake, inclusion of appetisers in the ration is considered better
  • To overcome this we have developed a number of instant mixes of appetisers/munches which could help the troops to have adequate appetite for food consumption
  • These have received good response in the high altitude trials
  • Appetisers are based on spices, fruits and vegetable
  • Some of these are Spice drink mix, Chakota soup mix, Spiced tomato mix, Appetising mix, Ginger munch, Fruit munch, Pepper munch, Jeera munch, Lemon munch.
slide24

Food Technology for Special Situations

  • Finger Millet (Eleusine Coracana) is rich in calcium, iron, dietary and functional fibre
  • We have adopted various technologies for the development of calcium rich, fibre rich foods
  • Ragi based nutritional products are in ready to eat, ready to reconstitute or ready to cook form
  • The biggest advantage of some ragi based products is its ability to reconstitute using cold water
  • This is a boon for soldiers deployed at high altitudes
  • Some of these speciality food are sweetened millet mix and millet cookies
  • They are highly liked by the Armed Forces during field trials conducted at high altitude
slide25

Food Technology for Special Situations

  • Some of the nutritional products based on ragi developed at the lab are
      • Millet ada mix
      • Millet roti mix
      • Millet dosa mix
      • Millet pakoda mix
      • Millet nippattu mix
      • Millet beverage mix
      • Millet sweetened cookie mix
      • Functional millet beverage mix
      • Functional millet cookie mix
      • Sweetened millet mix
      • Millet chapathi mix
      • Millet halbai mix
      • Millet kheer mix
      • Spiced millet mix etc.
slide26

Food Technology for Special Situations

Functional Foods

  • Seabuckthorn (SBT) grows widely in dry temperate Himalayas
  • Fruits and leaves are rich in bioactive substances and high potential in health food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries
  • The product SBT are stress relieving at altitudes
  • We have developed herbal tea formulation and baked products with SBT Leaves
  • The products are rich in polyphenols, flavonoids and also possess free radical scavenging potency
slide27

Food Technology for Special Situations

Functional Foods

  • DFRL has developed a range of products based on seabuckthorn which are rich in antioxidants
  • These products have a shelf life of 6 months
  • Some of the seabuckthorn based products (Antioxidant rich) are leaf tea, biscuits, buns, rusks and jam
  • In order to provide abdominal comfort at altitude and other altered situations, some phytochemicals may be useful
  • Hence Aloe vera based products may be useful
  • With that intention we developed ale vera based products viz. squash, Jam Jelly, etc.
slide28

Food Technology for Special Situations

  • CONCLUSIONS
  • DFRL, through systematic research and development activity has developed several foods meant for special situations , which could be easily reconstituted and consumed by Defence forces during operational conditions
  • Several such products have already been successfully introduced into the rations of Army, Navy and Air Force
  • These contributions of DRDO will go a long way in boosting the morale of the forces as well as help the civilian community to cop up with the needs of modern busy life style.