non vascular plants and ferns l.
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Non-Vascular Plants and Ferns. (a). Chara , a pond organism. 10 mm. 40 µm. (b). Coleochaete orbicularis , a disk- shaped charophycean (LM). Evolution of Land Plants. Land plants evolved from green algae The green algae called charophyceans are the closest relatives of land plants

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evolution of land plants

(a)

Chara,

a pond

organism

10 mm

40 µm

(b)

Coleochaete orbicularis, a disk-

shaped charophycean (LM)

Evolution of Land Plants
  • Land plants evolved from green algae
  • The green algae called charophyceans are the closest relatives of land plants
  • Comparisons of both nuclear and chloroplast genes
    • Point to charophyceans as the closest living relatives of land plants
origin and diversification of plants
Origin and Diversification of Plants
  • Fossil evidence indicates that plants were on land at least 475 million years ago
  • Whatever the age of the first land plants those ancestral species gave rise to a vast diversity of modern plants
plant evolution

Land plants

Vascular plants

Bryophytes

(nonvascular plants)

Seedless vascular plants

Seed plants

Mosses

Angiosperms

Gymnosperms

Liverworts

Hornworts

Charophyceans

Pterophyte (ferns, horsetails, whisk fern)

Lycophytes(club mosses, spike mosses, quillworts)

Origin of seed plants

(about 360 mya)

Origin of vascular

plants (about 420 mya)

Origin of land plants

(about 475 mya)

Ancestral

green alga

Plant Evolution
bryophytes
Bryophytes
  • Life cycles of mosses and other bryophytes are dominated by the gametophyte stage
  • Bryophytes are represented today by three phyla of small herbaceous (nonwoody) plants
    • Liverworts, phylum Hepatophyta
    • Hornworts, phylum Anthocerophyta
    • Mosses, phylum Bryophyta
bryophytes6

LIVERWORTS (PHYLUM HEPATOPHYTA)

Gametophore of

female gametophyte

Plagiochila

deltoidea,

a “leafy”

liverwort

Foot

Seta

Sporangium

Marchantia polymorpha,

a “thalloid” liverwort

Marchantia sporophyte (LM)

500 µm

MOSSES (PHYLUM BRYOPHYTA)

HORNWORTS (PHYLUM ANTHOCEROPHYTA)

An Anthoceros

hornwort species

Polytrichum commune,

hairy-cap moss

Sporophyte

Sporophyte

Gametophyte

Gametophyte

Bryophytes
liverworts
Liverworts
  • Have no true roots or shoots
  • Non- vascular
  • Require water to reproduce
  • Have no or very little leaf structure
  • Cannot live in sporophyte form
hornworts
Hornworts
  • Free-floating aquatic plant, or land plant
  • No vascular tissue
  • No true leaves or roots
  • Can live in both gametophyte and sporophyte forms
mosses
Mosses
  • Land plant
  • Most have no vascular tissue
  • Majority to life spent in gametophyte
  • Need water to breed
  • No leaves or roots
  • Sporophytes are capsules on stalks
vascular plants
Vascular Plants
  • Vascular plants have two types of vascular tissue
    • Xylem and phloem
  • Xylem
    • Conducts most of the water and minerals
    • Includes dead cells called tracheids
  • Phloem
    • Distributes sugars, amino acids, and other organic products
    • Consists of living cells
vascular plants11
Vascular Plants
  • Vascular plants have roots
    • Are organs that anchor vascular plants
    • Enable vascular plants to absorb water and nutrients from the soil
    • May have evolved from subterranean stems
  • Vascular plants have leaves
    • Leaves are organs that increase the surface area of vascular plants, thereby capturing more solar energy for photosynthesis
vascular plants12
Vascular Plants
  • Two types of vascular plants: seedless and seeded
  • Seedless vascular plants form two phyla
    • Lycophyta, including club mosses, spike mosses, and quillworts
    • Pterophyta, including ferns, horsetails, and whisk ferns and their relatives
  • Modern species of lycophytes are relics from a far more eminent past
    • Are small herbaceous plants
  • Ferns
    • Are the most diverse seedless vascular plants
seedless vascular plants

LYCOPHYTES (PHYLUM LYCOPHYTA)

Strobili

(clusters of

sporophylls)

Isoetes

gunnii,

a quillwort

Selaginella apoda,

a spike moss

Diphasiastrum tristachyum, a club moss

PTEROPHYTES (PHYLUM PTEROPHYTA)

Psilotum

nudum,

a whisk

fern

Equisetum

arvense,

field

horsetail

Athyrium

filix-femina,

lady fern

Vegetative stem

Strobilus on

fertile stem

FERNS

HORSETAILS

WHISK FERNS AND RELATIVES

Seedless Vascular Plants
ferns
Ferns
  • Like vascular plants but do not have seeds
    • Common in shady areas, diverse in the tropics
    • Have flagellated sperm that require water to reach the eggs
alternation of generations
Alternation of Generations
  • The seed plant life cycle contains both haploid and diploid stages
    • Diploid individuals are called sporophytes
    • Haploid individuals are called gametophytes
  • Does not happen in algae
  • May have evolved as an adaptation to harsh environments
    • Haploid cells divide into a cluster of cells before meiosis
alternation of generations16

Gametophytes(male and female)n

Mitosis

Mitosis

Sporesn

Gametes(sperm and eggs)n

HAPLOID

Fertilization

Meiosis

DIPLOID

Zygote2n

Mitosis

Sporophyte2n

Alternation of Generations
dominant gametophyte

5

Mitosis anddevelopment

Sperm (n) (released fromtheir gametangium)

Spores(n)

1

Gametangiumcontaining the egg (n) (remains within gametophyte)

Gametophytes(n)

Egg

HAPLOID

Meiosis

Fertilization

DIPLOID

Sporangium

Stalk

2

4

Zygote(2n)

Gametophyte(n)

3

Mitosis anddevelopment

Sporophytes (growing from gametophytes)

Dominant Gametophyte
  • Mosses have a dominant gametophyte stage
dominant sporophyte

Sperm (n)

5

Mitosis anddevelopment

Spores(n)

1

Gametophyte (n) (underside)

Egg (n)

Fertilization

HAPLOID

Meiosis

DIPLOID

Sporangia

2

4

Zygote(2n)

3

Mitosis anddevelopment

New sporophyte growingout of gametophyte

Sporophyte (2n)

Dominant Sporophyte
  • Most plants have a dominant sporophyte stage
seeded vascular plants
Seeded Vascular Plants
  • Gymnosperms- conifers, cycads, and ginkgo
  • Angiosperms- flowering plants