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Network Address Translation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Network Address Translation. Current problems with IP addresses: Address depletion Scaling in routing Solutions: IPv6 CIDR NAT. Network Address Translation. What is NAT?

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Network Address Translation

  • Current problems with IP addresses:
  • Address depletion
  • Scaling in routing
  • Solutions:
  • IPv6
  • CIDR
  • NAT
slide2

Network Address Translation

  • What is NAT?
  • Informally, NAT is a method of connecting multiple computers on a local network to an external network using one IP address.
  • NAT can be incrementally deployed and only the local network routers need to be modified to implement NAT.
  • Backbone routers need not be modified.
slide3

Network Address Translation

Basic operation:

NAT

NAT

Source -> 10.33.96.5: 2000

Destn. -> 198.76.28.4: 600

Source -> 198.76.28.4: 600

Destn. -> 198.76.29.7: 500

Reverse

Translation

Translation

Source -> 198.76.29.7: 500

Destn. -> 198.76.28.4: 600

Source -> 198.76.28.4: 600

Destn. -> 10.33.96.5: 2000

slide4

Network Address Translation

  • Routing across NAT:
  • Local addresses are hidden from backbone.
  • Backbone-partitioned networks need special handling using tunneling.
  • Header manipulations:
  • IP checksum should be changed.
  • For applications like FTP, application data should be modified which might require changing the TCP sequence no.s and acknowledgement no.s
slide5

Network Address Translation

  • ICMP messages need a lot of modifications when they pass through a NAT – two address modifications and three checksum modifications.
  • Disadvantages:
  • NAT heavily violates the layering principle by looking into the transport and application layers.
  • Applications that contain IP address in their data cannot work through NAT unless NAT knows the exact occurrences.
slide6

Network Address Translation

  • NAT reduces the options for providing security because any application data that contains IP addresses cannot be encrypted.
  • NAT provides privacy by hiding the local addresses but this makes detecting of attacks like mail spam difficult.
  • Conclusion:
  • NAT has several negative characteristics but it could still act as a short-term solution to the address depletion and scaling problems.