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Lecture 8. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions and National Culture. Levels of Culture. National level Regional / Ethnic / Religious / Linguistic affiliation level Gender level Generation level Social Class level Organizational / Corporate level. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions Overview.

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lecture 8

Lecture 8

Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions and

National Culture

COM 340

slide2

Levels of Culture

  • National level
  • Regional / Ethnic / Religious / Linguistic affiliation level
  • Gender level
  • Generation level
  • Social Class level
  • Organizational / Corporate level

COM 340

slide3

Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions Overview

  • Geert Hofstede (Dutch) - Well known for his work on “Four Dimensions of Cultural Variability.”
  • These include:
    • Uncertainty Avoidance
    • Power-Distance
    • Masculinity-Femininity
    • Individualism-Collectivism
    • Quantity vs. Quality of Life

COM 340

slide4

Uncertainty Avoidance

  • The extent to which a society feels threatened or is comfortable by uncertain and ambiguous situations.
  • STRONG Uncertainty Avoidance
  • WEAK Uncertainty Avoidance

COM 340

slide6

Uncertainty Avoidance (con’t)

  • STRONG Uncertainty Avoidance Cultures

Greece (1) Japan Chili

Portugal Peru Spain

Belgium France Argentina

  • Weak Uncertainty Avoidance Cultures

Singapore (53) Hong Kong India

Denmark the Philippines Ireland

Sweden Great Britain Malaysia

United States (43)

COM 340

slide7

Power-Distance

  • The extent to which the less powerful members of a society accept the fact that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally.
  • HIGH Power-Distance
  • LOW Power-Distance

COM 340

slide9

Power-Distance (con’t)

  • HIGH Power-Distance cultures

Malaysia (1) Philippines Hong Kong

Mexico Singapore India

Venezuela France Columbia

  • LOW Power-Distance cultures

Austria (53) Norway New Zealand

Israel Ireland Finland

Denmark Sweden Switzerland

United States ranked 38 out of 53 countries.

COM 340

slide10

Masculinity-Femininity

  • The extent to which gender roles in a culture are expected and clearly defined.
  • “Masculine”
  • “Feminine”

COM 340

slide11

Masculinity-Femininity (con’t)

  • Masculine Cultures

Japan (1) Mexico Great Britain

Ireland Germany Switzerland

Venezuela

  • Feminine Cultures

Sweden (53) Finland the Netherlands

Norway Chile Thailand

Denmark Portugal

United States ranked 15 out of 53 countries.

COM 340

slide12

Individualism-Collectivism

  • The extent to which a society is loosely or tightly knit.
  • INDIVIDUALISTIC
    • Emphasis on self versus social group
  • COLLECTIVISTIC
    • Emphasis on social group

COM 340

slide14

Individualism-Collectivism (con’t)

  • INDIVIDUALISTIC cultures

United States (1) Canada Italy

Australia the Netherlands Belgium

Great Britain New Zealand Denmark

  • COLLECTIVISTIC cultures

Guatemala (53) Columbia Singapore

Peru Taiwan Hong Kong

Pakistan Thailand Indonesia

Korea

Japan ranked 22 out of 53 countries.

COM 340

quantity quality of life
Quantity/Quality of Life
  • Emphasis on assertiveness & materialism versus relationships and leisure time

COM 340

cultural dimension ratings
Cultural Dimension Ratings

aA weak quantity-of-life score is equivalent to a high quality-of-life score.

COM 340

slide19

The Position of 40 Countries on the Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance Scales

COM 340