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Island evolution

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  1. Island evolution Evolutionary forces on islands Evolutionary trends on islands Morphology Gigantism and nanism Loss of dispersal abilities

  2. Pringleophaga marioni, Marion Island Lepidoptera: Tineidae Paractora dreuxi, Marion Island Diptera: Helcomyzidae

  3. Galapaganus, Galapagos Islands Sequiera et al. 2000

  4. 7.2 Mya winged/apterous mainland/island Naupactus xanthographus Naupactus verecundus Naupactus dissimulator Galapaganus howdenae Galapaganus galapagoensis Galapaganus caroli Galapaganus vandykei Galapaganus collaris Galapaganus conwayensis Galapaganus ashlocki Sequiera et al. 2000

  5. Coleoptera 80 Orthoptera 60 Diptera ArcSine-transformed % flightless (mainland areas) 40 Hemiptera 20 0 Thysanoptera 0 20 40 60 80 ArcSine-transformed % flightless (oceanic islands) Psocoptera Roff 1990 Neuroptera

  6. Sphenisciformes 18/18 1 Struthioniformes 15/15 1 Gruiformes 17/122 17 nr of species flightless/total nr of transitions

  7. Porzana sandwichiensis (+?1884), Hawaii Islands Porzana monasa (+1828), Kosrae Island Porzana atra, Henderson Island Porzana palmeri (+1920, 1948), Laysan Island

  8. 125 000 y Amauornis akoof Amauornis favirostris Porzana monasa Porzana tabuensis Porzana atra Porzana sandwichensis Amauornis bicolor Amauornis olivieri Porzana palmeri Porzana pusilla Porzana parva Porzana fusca Porzana paykullii Porzana carolina Porzana fluminea Porzana porzana Anurolimnas fasciatus Poliolimnas flaviventer Slikas et al. 2002

  9. Kagu,Rhynochetos jubatus, New Caledonia

  10. Rodriguez solitaire, Pezophaps solitaria, Rodriguez Dodo, Raphus cucullatus, Mauritius

  11. Kakapo, Strigops habroptilus, New Zealand

  12. Anas chlorotis, New Zealand Anas nesiotis, Campbell Islands Anas aucklandia, Auckland Islands

  13. Cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo Flightless cormorant, Phalacrocorax harrisi, Galapagos

  14. 1cm mandibles Apteribis, Hawaii Islands (+)

  15. Chelychelynechen quassus Thambetochen xanion Ptaiochen pau Anas wyviliana Thambetochen chauliodous Kauai Molokai Oahu Maui Lanai Hawaii moa-nalo (+), Hawaiian Islands Sorensen et al. 1999

  16. number of evolutionary transitions number of flightless species total number of species Ostriches Struthionidae 1 1 1 Africa Rheas Rheidae 2 2 South America Cassowaries Casuariidae 4 4 Australia, New Guinea Kiwis Apterygidae 3 3 New Zealand Emus Dromaiidae 1 1 Australia Moas Dinornithidae 13 13 New Zealand Dromornithidae 8 8 Australia Elephant birds Aepyornithidae 9 9 Madagascar Dodos Raphidae 2 2 2 Mascarene Islands Rails Rallidae 17 17 122 Various islands Kagus Rhynochetidae 1 1 1 New Caledonia Parrots Psittacidae 1 1 358 New Zealand Ibises Plataleidae 3? ? ? Hawaii Penguins Spheniscidae 18 1 18 Southern hemisphere Cormorants Phalacrocoracidae 1 1 37 Galapagos Islands Grebes Podicipedidae 3 3 21 South America Murres Alcidae 1 1 23 Atlantic Ocean Ducks Anatidae 4 2 148 Various coastlines

  17. "There is a very curious point in the astounding proportion of Coleoptera that are apterous; & I think I have grasped the reason, viz that powers of flight wd be injurious to insects inhabiting a confined locality & expose them to be blown to the sea" Darwin, 1855 natural selection for energy re-allocation random drift not countered by selection Loss of dispersal abilities ecological release (lack of predators)

  18. Gavidae Phasantidae 2.0 Log winglength (cm) 1.0 Bird families No flightless species Contains flightless species 0 0 1 2 3 4 Log body mass (g) McCall et al. 1998

  19. Broom stick, Bidens pilosa, Tropics Bog Beggarticks, Bidens conjuncta, Hawaii Islands

  20. pappus achene Lactuca muralis, Vancouver Island Cody & Overton 1996

  21. 2.0 2000 1500 Volume pappus / Volume achenes 1000 500 0 mainland 1-4 5-7 8-9 10+ Age (years) Lactuca muralis, Vancouver Island Cody & Overton 1996

  22. Island evolution Evolutionary forces on islands Evolutionary trends on islands Morphology Gigantism and nanism Loss of dispersal abilities Development of woodiness

  23. Cabbage tree, Dendroseris litoralis, Juan Fernandez Islands

  24. Sow Thistle, Sonchus fruticosus, Madeira

  25. Narrowleaf plantain, Plantago lanceolata, Eurasia Plantago princeps, Hawaii

  26. Competition hypothesis growing taller is advantageous Longevity hypothesis woodiness allows extended lifespans, increases chance of sexual reproduction Climate hypothesis islands have milder and moister climates Development of woodiness

  27. Island evolution Evolutionary forces on islands Evolutionary trends on islands Morphology Gigantism and nanism Loss of dispersal abilities Development of woodiness Tendency towards melanism

  28. lower predation pressure tendency towards melanism thermal advantage

  29. Viper, Vipera berus, Swedish islands in the Baltic Sea

  30. 70 60 50 40 Melanism frequency (%) 30 20 10 0 insular inland coastal Viper, Vipera berus, Swedish islands in the Baltic Sea Forsman 1995

  31. 0.9 Annual survival rate 0.7 zigzag males 0.5 melanistic males 1986-87 87-88 88-89 89-90 90-91 Year Viper, Vipera berus, Swedish islands in the Baltic Sea Forsman 1995

  32. Japanese four-lined ratsnake, Elaphe quadrivirgata, Yakushima Island Tanaka 2007

  33. 16 12 melanistic striped deviation from preferred range (°C) 8 4 0 Jul Sep Oct Nov Month Japanese four-lined ratsnake, Elaphe quadrivirgata, Yakushima Island Tanaka 2007