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Island evolution. Evolutionary forces on islands Evolutionary trends on islands. Morphology Behaviour. Development of tameness . Falkland Islands fox, Dusycion australis , Falkland Islands. Blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii, Galapagos. Tamar wallaby, Macropus eugenii , Kangaroo Island.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1
Island evolution

Evolutionary forces on islands

Evolutionary trends on islands

Morphology

Behaviour

Development of tameness

slide5
30

20

Average flight

initiation distance

10

0

Kangaroo

Island

New Zealand

Tutanning

Garden

Island

slide6
House mice, Mus musculus, feeding on Tristan albatross,Diomedea dabbenena, Gough Island
slide7
Island evolution

Evolutionary forces on islands

Evolutionary trends on islands

Morphology

Behaviour

Development of tameness

Relaxation in territoriality

slide10
Resource hypothesis

Defence hypothesis

Competition release

Predation release

Mild climate

Abundant resources

Increased survival of "have-nots"

Increased territorial defence costs

  • Relaxation in territoriality
  • smaller territories
  • increased overlap
  • tolerance towards subordinates
  • reduced aggressiveness
  • abandonment of territorial defence
slide11
Island evolution

Evolutionary forces on islands

Evolutionary trends on islands

Morphology

Behaviour

Life history

Reduced fecundity

slide12
breeding season

instant food availability

clutch size ~

population density

winter

Resource predictability hypothesis

milder climate, reduced seasonality favours a

reduction in clutch size

Energy reallocation hypothesis

predation relaxation, density compensation

select for investment in fewer,higher quality

young

reduced clutch size

higher quality young

slide13
Island evolution

Evolutionary forces on islands

Evolutionary trends on islands

Morphology

Behaviour

Life history

Reduced fecundity

Changes in reproductive strategy

Dioecy

slide14
Monoecious

Dioecious

Hermaphrodite

male

male

female

female

male

female

Tag alder, Alnus serrulata

Lily, Lilium

Holly, Ilex aquifolium

slide15
Hawaii

worldwide

monoecious

5-6%

monoecious

7.6%

dioecious

6-7%

dioecious

14.7%

hermaphrodite

85%

hermaphrodite

62.4%

slide16
avoiding

inbreeding depression

sex allocation theory

dioecy

slide18
Island evolution

Evolutionary forces on islands

Evolutionary trends on islands

Morphology

Behaviour

Life history

Reduced fecundity

Changes in reproductive strategy

Dioecy

Loss of flower attractiveness

slide19
Psychopsis papilio, South America

Sun orchid, Thelymitra longifolia, New Zealand

slide21
Honshu

Bombus diversus

Oshima

Toshima

Niijima

Kozu

Miyake

Bombus ardens

Mikura

0

100 km

Hachijo

Lasioglossum

slide22
30

Honshu

20

Oshima

Niijima

Toshima

Corolla width (mm)

Kozu

Hachijo

Miyake

10

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Pollinator width (mm)

slide23
Island evolution

Evolutionary forces on islands

Evolutionary trends on islands

Morphology

Behaviour

Life history

Reduced fecundity

Changes in reproductive strategy

Dioecy

Loss of flower attractiveness

Anemophily

slide26
Windy conditions

allow wind pollination

Inbreeding

avoidance

Anemophily

Lack or paucity

of animal pollinators

slide27
Island evolution

Evolutionary forces on islands

Evolutionary trends on islands

Morphology

Behaviour

Life history

Reduced fecundity

Changes in reproductive strategy

Dioecy

Loss of flower attractiveness

Anemophily

Unusual pollinators

slide28
88%

Bumble bee, Bombus canariensis, Canary Islands

slide30
80%

Aeonium holochrysum, Canary Islands

slide33
Island evolution

Evolutionary forces on islands

Evolutionary trends on islands

Morphology

Behaviour

Life history

Reduced fecundity

Changes in reproductive strategy

Unusual dispersal agents

slide34
Podarcis lilfordi, Balearic Islands

Podarcis pityusensis, Balearic Islands

Gallotia atlantica, Fuerteventura

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