Interest Based Bargaining Robert A. Kubiak Executive Director Trumbull County Children Services Board
Interest Based Bargaining A method of principled negotiations that is “hard” on the merits and “soft” on the people.
Why Use Interest Based Bargaining? • Allows full discussion on difficult or complex issues • Promotes creative solutions • Reduces confrontation • Results in ownership and support of the results • Builds a closer working relationship
Written proposals Exaggerated positions Throw-a-ways Lead negotiator Selective information Horse trading issues Issue list No positions, only interests Real issues Team discussion Open sharing of information Merit-based solutions Traditional versus IBB
PATTS (P.A.S.T. Model) • Principles • Assumptions • Tools and Techniques • Steps
Changing the Paradigm From • Power-based • Rights-based To • Interest-based
The 4 Principles of IBB 1. Focus on the issues not the personalities 2. Focus on interests not on positions 3. Create options to satisfy the interests 4. Evaluate the options with standards, not power and leverage
The 5 Assumptions of IBB 1. Bargaining enhances the parties’ relationship 2. Both parties can win in bargaining 3. Both parties should help each other win
The 5 Assumptions of IBB (continued) 4. Open and frank discussion expands the areas of mutual interests, and this in turn expands the options available to the parties 5. Mutually developed standards for evaluating options can move decision-making away from a reliance on power
Tools and Techniques • Active listening • Idea charting • Brainstorming • Consensus decision-making
Skills for Constructive Communication “Seek first to understand, then to be understood.” -Stephen Covey
What are some qualities of good listener? • The ability to not only listen to the content of the message, but acknowledge the emotion behind it as well. • The capacity to receive the whole meaning by concentrating on the words, tone, gestures, and posture.
Tips to Active Listening • Learn to want to listen • Stay focused on the speaker • Control your emotional hot buttons • Listen for the unsaid (feelings) as well as the said
The C.O.R.R.E.C.T. Method C Concentrate: focus on the substance O Observe: body language R Respond: communicate understanding R Reflect: paraphrase or repeat E Elicit: ask questions C Control: your interruptions T Take initiative: to listen first
Empathetic Listening • Listening with the goal to see things as others see them. • The ability to share in another’s emotion, thoughts and feeling.
Idea Charting • Title/label/and date each page • Write or print largely and clearly • Use a good marking pen • Change colors • Explain abbreviations
Idea Charting • Number topics in a series • Number ahead • Avoid editing or imposing your ideas • Never “flip” the flipchart • Post each chart
Brainstorming The free, uninhibited generation of ideas.
Brainstorming Hints • Be free-wheeling • Use imagination • Take a risk • Build on the ideas of others-combining and expanding
Brainstorming Rules • Record each idea exactly as it was said • Clarify ambiguities • Absolutely NO criticism
Consensus A group reaches consensus when all members agree upon a single alternative.
Consensus In consensus, each group member can honestly say: “I believe that you understand my point of view and that I understand yours. Whether or not I prefer this decision, I support it because it was reached fairly and openly, and it is the best solution for us at this time”
Consensus guidelines • Listen actively • Encourage participation • Share information • Do not agree too quickly • Do not trade support • No voting
The 70/100 Rule When you, as an individual, are 70% comfortable that you can support the group’s decision 100%, then you are in consensus.
It is not always easy • Do not isolate or coerce any individuals who are not at 70% • The group needs differences to get the best solutions • Create a solution that can be supported
Getting Consensus • Individuals not at 70% have an obligation to offer alternatives (more options) which addresses their concerns and a solution that can be supported.
Understand Interest Based Bargaining • Steps • The actual process • Getting ready • Protocols
The Steps of Interest Based Bargaining 1. Issue 2. Interests 3. Options 4. Standards 5. Solution
Issue The party raising the issue needs to: • Explain it • Provide background about it Good solutions come from a good understanding of the issue
Cause and Effect Analysis • Cause and Effect analysis helps diagnose a problem - to trace it back to its root causes. • It is the root causes that need to be clearly identified and understood before a group begins to identify and implement solutions.
Cause and Effect Analysis Ask yourself : “What do you believe caused the problem to exist?” and “What has resulted from the problem existing?”
Interests The purpose of negotiating is to satisfy your interests • If you want the team to take your interests into account, discuss them • Explain your interests so that all team members can understand them
Acknowledge each other’s interests • Actively listen to all interests • If you want other team members to appreciate your interests, demonstrate that you appreciate theirs
Externalize your interests • Share information • Share all information
Focus on your interests • Do not announce a position on any issue - it will stop the process
Focuses on a particular solution Makes a demand Draws a line Sets up confrontation Ends or dampens discussion Focuses on problem Articulates one of the range of needs Makes no valuations Establishing a climate of understanding Allows the real issue or problem to be discussed Position versus Interest
Interest statements • Do not provide the solution to the issue • Open discussion and provides a basis for joint exploration of the issue
When you hear a position • Convert the position statement into interest statements • Peel off the positional layers
What you see What you say The measurable The quantifiable What you do not see What you do not say Fears Beliefs Concerns Tangible & Intangible Interests
Options Through the synergistic process of brainstorming, options are created to address the interests
Obstacles that inhibit the inventing of options • Criticism • Fear • Impatience • Confusion • Single-best answer • Staying-in-the-box
Standards The parties need to agree on a set of factors which they will use to judge the options.
Standards • Feasible • Beneficial • Acceptable