green computing l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Green Computing PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Green Computing

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 31

Green Computing - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 344 Views
  • Uploaded on

Green Computing. Reducing the environmental and economic impact of energy consumption by low-power Integrated Circuit Design Faculty Forum, April 1, 2008. Peiyi Zhao, Ph.D. Department of Mathematics, Computer Science, and Physics Chapman University. Overview. Integrated Circuits

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Green Computing' - salena


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
green computing

Green Computing

Reducing the environmental and economic impact of energy consumption by low-power Integrated Circuit Design

Faculty Forum, April 1, 2008

Peiyi Zhao, Ph.D.

Department of Mathematics, Computer Science, and Physics

Chapman University

overview
Overview
  • Integrated Circuits
  • Power Consumption
  • Green Computing
  • Understanding the levels of a Computer
  • Where does the power go?
  • How can we reduce power?
integrated circuits
Integrated Circuits
  • The first transistor was built in 1947.
  • The first integrated circuit was invented in 1959.
  • Market driven by military, computer, communications, and consumer needs.
  • Equipment once used by the military are now available on a number of consumer products.
integrated circuits are everywhere
Integrated Circuits are Everywhere

Climate Control

Lighting

Dashboard Display

Door Modules

Engine Control

Fuel Injection

Entertainment

Chassis Electronics

Safety Control

integrated circuit market
Integrated Circuit Market
  • Six billion microcontroller units were shipped in 2004, predicted to be increasing by 10% each year from 2004-2009 (Instate Inc. market research)
  • Semiconductor annual revenue of 2004 is estimated at US $211.4 billion.
power consumption
Power Consumption
  • Desktop consumption has reached 100 watts
  • Total Personal Computer(400 million) energy usage in 2000 = 26 nuclear power plants
  • Power is the bottleneck of improving the system performance
  • Power consumption is causing serious problems because of excessive heat.

Water Cooled Computer

(www.water-cooling.com)

power consumption of processor

Nuclear Reactor

Pentium 4

Hot Plate

Pentium 3

Pentium 2

Pentium Pro

Pentium

486

386

Power Consumption of Processor
power consumption8
Power Consumption
  • As circuit speed increases, power consumption grows
  • Designing low power circuits has been the most important issue
  • Mobile applications demand long battery life
  • Low power consumption is listed as the second greatest challenge for the industry
the current situation
The Current Situation
  • Energy provisioning is arguably the most important business, geo-political, and societal issue of our time
  • Global Warming is influencing policies and laws which require energy usage and greenhouse emissions to be measured and controlled
  • The cost of energy and increases in IT power requirements present significant expense, supply, and handling challenges for data centers
  • “Intelligent Energy” Dr. Bernard S. Meyerson, IBM Fellow, VP Strategic Alliances and CTO, IBM Systems & Technology Group, on ASE – Great Energy Efficiency Day, February 14, 2007 - Washington, DC
power consumption data centers
Power Consumption & Data Centers

Internet

  • Where are the web pages you browse?
  • Data Center
  • One single room in Datacenter contains 100 Racks
  • 1 Rack = 5 to 20 kW
  • Contributed to the 2000/2001 California Energy Crisis

Client

Racks

Data Center

  • “Intelligent Energy” Dr. Bernard S. Meyerson, IBM Fellow, VP Strategic Alliances and CTO, IBM Systems & Technology Group, on ASE – Great Energy Efficiency Day, February 14, 2007 - Washington, DC

Gateway

cooling the data center
Cooling the Data Center

Flickr.com

  • Current coolants: CFCs and HCFCs = Ozone Depletion
  • The other alternative coolant: HFC = increase in green house emission 1300 times (http://www.cs.virginia.edu/kim/courses/cs771/lectures/CS771-22.ppt)
  • Moving Datacenters to exotic locations(Microsoft -> Cold Siberia, Sun -> underground)

Siberia

umw.edu

Underground Japan

energy usage of data centers
Energy Usage of Data Centers

http://www.westportnow.com

  • 2006: $15 Billion for energy usage
    • Impact of 10% Reduction of Power Consumption of Data Centers
      • $15b x 10% = $1.5 billion in savings
      • 200 x 10% = 20 million tons of CO2
      • 4 million cars(Number of cars that would have to be taken off the

road to reduce the same amount of CO2 emissions.)

reducing power consumption
Reducing Power Consumption
  • Data centers = huge energy bill + produce CO2 + green house emission + air pollution…
  • Moore’s Law: transistor density doubles every 18 months.
  • “We must reduce power usage. Computing is part of the solution, part of the problem”-- ”Sustainable Computing,” David Douglas, VP, Ecological Responsibility, Sun Microsystems

Source: University of Delaware

green computing17
Green Computing
  • In order to achieve sustainable computing, we need to rethink from a “Green Computing” perspective.
  • GreenComputing:
    • Maximize energy efficiency
    • Reduce of the use of hazardous materials such as lead
    • Maximize recyclability of both a defunct product and of any factory waste.
  • “Green Computing” in view of energy efficiency at the nanometer scale - design low power consumption integrated circuits at 180nm and below.
a perfect green computing example
A Perfect “Green Computing” Example
  • A super low-power “processor”:
    • 800x faster
    • 1000x more memory
    • 3000x less power
what can we do about power
What can we do about power?
  • Understand all levels of the computer
  • Understand where power is dissipated
  • Think about ways to reduce power usage at all levels
the 6 levels of a computer
The 6 Levels of a Computer

5

High Level Programming

4

Assembly Language

Software

3

Operating System

2

Instruction Set Architecture

1

Digital Logic

Hardware

0

Integrated Circuit

the need for both sides
The Need for Both Sides

“The performance of software systems is dramatically affected by how well software designers understand the basic hardware technologies at work in a system. Similarly, hardware designers must understand the far-reaching effects their design decisions have on software applications.”

- John Hennessy, President of Stanford University & David Patterson, UC Berkeley, President of ACM

“[Students] should know the device, layout, circuit, architecture, algorithm, and system-6 levels.”

- Dr. Mehdi Hatamian, V.P, Broadcom, Nov.2006

the chapman approach
The Chapman Approach

5

High Level Programming

CPSC 230/231, 350, 353, 354, 402, 408

4

Assembly Language

CPSC 250

3

Operating System

CPSC 380

2

Instruction Set Architecture

CPSC 252

1

Digital Logic

CPSC 330

0

Integrated Circuit

CPSC 465

where does power go
Where does power go?

Power Breakdown of an Itanium 2 Processor

processor clock
Processor Clock
  • Power consumption is proportional to clock frequency.
  • Clock frequency: how often the clock changes every second; of course, every change of the clock consumes power.
  • Analogous to how many times the motor spins per second in your car.
  • Traditionally only one edge of the clock is used to process information, and the other edge is ignored.
using double edge clocking
Using Double Edge Clocking
  • Using double edge clocking, the clock frequency can be reduced to half.
  • “Low Power clock branch sharing Double-EdgeFlip-Flop,” P. Zhao, Jason McNeely, Pradeep Golconda, agdy A. Bayoumi, Kuang W.D, and Robert Barcenas, IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems,Vol.15, No.3, pp. 338-345, March 2007.
  • Proposed clock branch sharing technique: used least number of clocked transistors to implement double edge clocking efficiently.

Conventional Single edge Design:

Proposed

Design:

potential savings
Potential Savings

33%

x

0.5

=

15%

Savings from

Double Edge Usage by using half of the frequency

Clock Power Usage

Power Savings

$15b

x

15%

=

$2.25b

Annual Energy Cost of Data Centers

Savings

Annual Savings

peer reviewed journal publications patent for low power consumption
Peer Reviewed Journal Publications, Patent for Low Power Consumption

Peer Reviewed Journal Publications (all as first author)

  • P. Zhao, T. Darwish, M. Bayoumi, “High Performance and Low Power Conditional Discharge Flip-Flop,” in Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, Vol 12., No. 5, pp. 477-484, May 2004.
  • P. Zhao, Jason McNeely, Pradeep Golconda, Magdy A. Bayoumi, Kuang W.D, and Robert Barcenas, “Low Power Clock Branch Sharing Double-Edge Triggered Flip-Flop,” IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems,Vol.15, No.3, pp. 338-345, March 2007.
  • Journal Paper under Revision:

P. Zhao, Jason McNeely, G. P. Kumar, Nan Wang, M. Bayoumi, and Robert Barcenas, “Low Power Clocked-pseudo-NMOS Flip-flops for Level Conversion in Dual Supply Systems,” submitted to IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems under 1st revision.

Patent

  • Single transistor clocked flip flop, by P.Zhao, T.Darwish, M.Bayoumi
student research assistance
Student Research Assistance
  • Chapman undergraduate student Robert Barcenas is involved with research and is one of the co-authors of a journal paper
  • Two previous students who worked with me on my project were hired by Intel
low power research recognition
Low Power Research Recognition
  • Our research results are comparable to the results from other more well-funded research groups:
  • Our designs outperformed those of Intel and UC Davis
  • Our designs have attracted industry attention from Toshiba