Experiments. Uniquely suited to identify cause-effect relationships To study effect of one variable (treatment) on another (outcome/dependent variable) Use a control group to rule out other causes Program is the “treatment” in a program evaluation; desired outcomes are “effect”
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1. Sample equivalent experimental and control groups
2. Isolate and control the treatment
3. Measure the effect
R MB2 MA2 Control groupPre-test/Post-test with Control
R denotes random assignment to groups
X denotes the treatment
Measure of effect = Expmt gp - Control gp
= (MA1-MB1) - (MA2-MB2)
= with vs without
Expmt 75% 90%
Control 70% 80%
Effect = (90-75) - (80-70)
= 15% - 10% = 5%
With vs without the treatment = 5%
Before vs After = 15%
1. Travel Bureau compares travel inquiries in 1991 and 1994 to evaluate 1992 promotion efforts.
2. To assess effectiveness of an interpretive exhibit, visitors leaving park are asked if they saw exhibit or not, Two groups are compared relative to knowledge, attitudes etc.