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Decolonization in Vietnam and India. How did Nationalism affect them?. Postwar Vietnam. The DRV (Democratic Republic of Vietnam - Vietminh) had taken advantage of France and Japan’s power struggle over Vietnam to organize their intentions of gaining independence

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decolonization in vietnam and india

Decolonization in Vietnam and India

How did Nationalism affect them?

postwar vietnam
Postwar Vietnam
  • The DRV (Democratic Republic of Vietnam - Vietminh) had taken advantage of France and Japan’s power struggle over Vietnam to organize their intentions of gaining independence
  • August 1945 abdication of Bao Dai (French Rule and through Japanese rule)
  • DRV occupy the North with their capital at Hanoi, liberated French occupy the South with the capital at Saigon
  • Agreement between north and south made to have French troops in the north in return for recognizing the north as a free state under the French (neither side really happy)

Ho Chi Minh

first indochina war
First Indochina War
  • Dec 1946 DRV attack French troops in the north
  • DRV used guerrilla tactics – hide in the mountains when French attack
    • At the same time, seek enough support of the people, once numbers equalled the French’s, they would attack
  • China would aid DRV militarily
first indochina war1
First Indochina War
  • France establishes a new autonomous government in the south under Bao Dai to win support of the people
  • France gains the support of the US
  • An attack by the DRV to drive out the French fails because of the US military support of the French
  • Being outmatched by the French, Ho’s strategy turned to attacking vulnerable outposts of the French in hopes of wearing them down (avoid direct confrontation)
battle of dien bien phu 1954
Battle of Dien Bien Phu 1954
  • Dien Bien Phu was made as an air supplied base for the South in the North
  • Stalemate in the war leads to France opening talks of a cease-fire
  • DRV wanted one last major victory before entering talks in order to strengthen their position
  • DRV is successful and it shows their strength
geneva accord 1954
Geneva Accord 1954
  • Temporarily divided Vietnam into two separate cease-fire zones
    • representing the positions of the two sides in the war
  • DRV wanted a withdrawal of French troops (partially achieved)
  • Country to be unified in 1956 after a national election
  • Established a non-communist government in Laos and Cambodia
  • DRV reluctant to agree but they were pressured by China and USSR to sign because they didn’t want the US to get involved
aftermath
Aftermath
  • New government in the south (Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem) refused to hold national elections in 1956 on the grounds that a free vote was impossible under the Communist government in the north
  • The US encouraged this violation of the accords
    • supported the development of an independent South Vietnam
    • Wanted to resist the further spread of Communism in Southeast Asia
  • DRV tries to organize and gain support of factions in the south
  • Leads to the Vietnam War
india nehru report 1928
India – Nehru Report 1928
  • Simon Commission sent from Britain to India to figure out the next step in Indian Self Rule
india nehru report 19281
India – Nehru Report 1928
  • Britain asks India to frame their own constitution
  • All Parties Conference held in January 1928 – Muslim League and Indian National Congress
    • Issue of minority rights hinders developments
  • After a third meeting in May with no results, a committee is put together, led by Motilal Nehru, to figure out the constitution
    • 9 other members of the committee (2 Muslims)
india
India

Gandhi

  • After the Salt March, Gandhi goes to London to discuss India’s independence – no conclusions (1931)
  • Arrested when he returns to India
  • 1934 Gandhi resigns from the Indian National Congress because he didn’t feel they were sincere about non-violence
    • replaced as leader by Jawaharlal Nehru
  • 1936 he establishes himself in the remote village of Segaon (Sevagram) in the middle of India – called an “Ashram”/ hermitage
india gandhi
India - Gandhi
  • WWII India is neutral – Britain agreed to resume talks of independence after the war
  • 1942 Gandhi gives his last call for independence from Britain (Quit India Speech)
  • Gandhi is arrested
partition of india 1947
Partition of India 1947
  • India and Pakistan (Muslim) to be independent states
  • Causes mass migration of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs
  • Gandhi did not participate in the celebration
    • He was against the split of India and Pakistan
    • He was trying to calm riots
  • Gandhi is assassinated by a Hindu fundamentalist believing that he sided with the Muslims
muhammad ali jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
  • Resigned from Congress in 1920 with Gandhi’s non-cooperation movement
  • Member of the Muslim League and wanted Hindu-Muslim unity in India
  • Nehru Report changes Jinnah’s unity goal
  • 1940 Muslim League begins to demand the creation of a separate state of Pakistan (Lahore Resolution)
    • necessary to safeguard the rights of Muslims Successful in helping create Pakistan in 1947
    • Muslims and Hindus are separate nations
  • First governor general of Pakistan but dies of tuberculosis in 1948
assignment
Assignment
  • Were Gandhi and Jinnah’s beliefs so different that both their goals could not be achieved if they worked together?
    • Use examples of their beliefs to prove your opinion