Common Types of Woven Fabric. Basic weave structures. Woven Structure. Orientations in a Woven Fabric. Machine direction = "warp" or "end" Perpendicular direction = "fill" or "weft" or "pick" or "woof” Frequently the warp direction corresponds with the 0°, or longitudinal direction
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
lf
ly
q
tf + tw
pf
b
AR
=
a
a
2
d
b
=
=
A
ab
a
AR
p
p
A
1
a
=
=
d
4AR
AR
p

4
2
´
A
3
.
9
10
in
=
=
=
a
.00455 in
p
6
6
p
total thickness
t
0
.
100
inches
=
=
=
=
tows needed for thickness
11
tows
·
tow thickness
2a
2
.
00455
inches
Two sample preforms were specified, each with a 45°weave angle requested:
Parameter
Sample 1
Sample 2
%0° fiber
47
77
0° fiber type
IM712k
IM712k
%90° fiber
47
17
90° fiber type
IM712k
IM712k
%z fiber
6
6
z fiber type
AS43k
AS46k
thickness (inches)
0.100
0.100
Volume fraction (%)
56
56
The preforms were procured from a weaver, then evaluated based on the design methodology.
6
2
æ
ö
oz
10
in
lb
yd
Fiber direction
% tows
directional
areal
ç
·
=
0
°
:
ypi
=
57.23
1
10
.4 ypi
·
·
è
ø
density
2
25.0 lbs
16 oz
36 in
yd
2
(oz/yd
)
0°
77
57.23
6
2
æ
ö
oz
10
in
lb
yd
ç
·
·
·
=
9
0
°
:
90°
17
12.63
ypi
=
12.63
24
.4 ypi
è
ø
2
25.0 lbs
16 oz
36 in
yd
ttt
6
4.46
Total
100
74.32
6
2
æ
ö
oz
10
in
lb
yd
ç
·
·
·
·
a
z
:
ypi
=
4.46
cos
=
7.9 ypi
è
ø
i
2
25.0 lbs
16 oz
36 in
yd
Sample 1
Parameter
0°
90°
ttt
Required
Reported
Required
Reported
Required
Reported
areal weight
34.9
34.9
34.9
34.9
4.5
4.5
2
(oz/yd
)
yarns per inch
67.5
67.5
67.5
67
18.2
16
Volume fraction
26.4
22.9
26.4
22.9
3.3
2.9
Sample 2
Parameter
0°
90°
ttt
Required
Reported
Required
Reported
Required
Reported
areal weight
57.2
12.5
12.6
57.2
4.5
4.5
2
(oz/yd
)
yarns per inch
110.4
24
24.4
110
8.3
6
Volume fraction
43.2
7.5
9.4
34.6
3.3
2.7
6
2
æ
ö
oz
10
in
lb
yd
ç
·
·
·
·
(
)
6
ypi
=
w
cos
22.5
è
ø
z
2
11.8 lbs
16 oz
36 in
yd
w
=
1
.
5
9
+
5
7
.
2
2
+
1
2
.
4
5
=
7
1
.
2
6
o
z
/
y
d
2
2
æ
ö
lbs
36 in
16
oz
oz
ç
÷
·
·
·
·
=
V
.064
.100 in
71.26
f
è
ø
3
2
yd
lb
in
yd
V
=
5
3
.
7
%
f
It was calculated that 74.3 oz/yd2 was needed to meet the 56% volume fraction specified
0.75
0.7
0.65
4 epi
6 epi
0.6
0.55
Fiber Volume Fraction
0.5
0.45
0.4
0.35
0.3
0.25
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Weave Angle Ratio
70
60
50
4 ppi
Weave Angle (deg)
6 ppi
40
30
20
10
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Weave Angle Ratio
0.8
Percent longitudinal
0.7
Percent weaver
Percent fill
0.6
0.5
Distribution Ratio
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Weave Angle (deg)
0.45
0.4
0.35
Fiber Volume Fraction
0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Picks per inch
45
40
35
30
25
Weave Angle (deg)
20
15
10
5
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Picks per inch
0.8
Percent longitudinal
0.7
Percent weaver
Percent fill
0.6
0.5
Distribution Ratio
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Weave Angle (deg)