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TCP over ATM: PowerPoint Presentation
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TCP over ATM:

TCP over ATM:

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TCP over ATM:

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  1. TCP over ATM: • UBR: for delay-tolerant applications • e.g., ftp, telnet • ABR: • for delay sensitive applications, e.g., on-line sessions • provides explicit congestion signaling • TCP over UBR: • observation: when ATM cell is dropped, all other ATM cells that belong to the same IP datagram are useless 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  2. solution: develop discard strategy to minimize transmission of useless cells • (1) Partial Packet Discard (PPD): • when a cell is dropped at a switch, all cells belonging to the same datagram are dropped • switch identifies the end of IP datagram using type-bit in ATM header in AAL 5 • on average: ½ datagram worth of ATM cells are transmitted uselessly 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  3. (2) Early Packet Discard (EPD): • when buffer exceeds a threshold, drop complete IP datragrams • problem of fairness: the shorter the datagram, the higher the probability of drop • (3) add fairness using fair buffer allocation (FBA): • when EPD is invoked drop from connections using more than their fair share 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  4. the number of VC connections is V • if N is the current occupancy, then the fair share is N/V • the weight w(i)=N(i)/[N/V], where N(i) is occupancy of connection I • policy to drop: if (N>R) and w(i)>z then drop, where R is the congestion threshold and z~1 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  5. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  6. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  7. Chapter 6Wireless and Mobile Networks Computer Networking: A Top Down Approach 4th edition. Jim Kurose, Keith RossAddison-Wesley, July 2007. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  8. Background: # wireless (mobile) phone subscribers now exceeds # wired phone subscribers! computer nets: laptops, palmtops, PDAs, Internet-enabled phone promise anytime untethered Internet access two important (but different) challenges wireless: communication over wireless link mobility: handling the mobile user who changes point of attachment to network Chapter 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  9. 6.1 Introduction Wireless 6.2 Wireless links, characteristics 6.3 IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs (“wi-fi”) 6.4Cellular Internet Access architecture standards (e.g., GSM) Mobility 6.5 Principles: addressing and routing to mobile users 6.6 Mobile IP 6.7 Handling mobility in cellular networks 6.8 Mobility and higher-layer protocols 6.9Summary Chapter 6 outline 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  10. wireless hosts • laptop, PDA, IP phone • run applications • may be stationary (non-mobile) or mobile • wireless does not always mean mobility network infrastructure Elements of a wireless network 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  11. base station • typically connected to wired network • relay - responsible for sending packets between wired network and wireless host(s) in its “area” • e.g., cell towers, 802.11 access points network infrastructure Elements of a wireless network 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  12. network infrastructure Elements of a wireless network wireless link • typically used to connect mobile(s) to base station • also used as backbone link • multiple access protocol coordinates link access • various data rates, transmission distance 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  13. Characteristics of selected wireless link standards 200 802.11n 54 802.11a,g 802.11a,g point-to-point data 5-11 802.11b 802.16 (WiMAX) 3G cellular enhanced 4 UMTS/WCDMA-HSPDA, CDMA2000-1xEVDO Data rate (Mbps) 1 802.15 .384 3G UMTS/WCDMA, CDMA2000 2G .056 IS-95, CDMA, GSM Indoor 10-30m Outdoor 50-200m Mid-range outdoor 200m – 4 Km Long-range outdoor 5Km – 20 Km 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  14. infrastructure mode • base station connects mobiles into wired network • handoff: mobile changes base station providing connection into wired network network infrastructure Elements of a wireless network 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  15. Elements of a wireless network ad hoc mode • no base stations • nodes can only transmit to other nodes within link coverage • nodes organize themselves into a network: route among themselves 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  16. Wireless network taxonomy multiple hops single hop host may have to relay through several wireless nodes to connect to larger Internet: mesh net host connects to base station (WiFi, WiMAX, cellular) which connects to larger Internet infrastructure (e.g., APs) no base station, no connection to larger Internet. May have to relay to reach other a given wireless node MANET, VANET no infrastructure no base station, no connection to larger Internet (Bluetooth, ad hoc nets) Mobile Adhoc Networks Vehicular Adhoc Networks 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  17. Wireless Communication Systems & Networking • What complicates wireless networking vs. wired networking? 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  18. 1- Channel characteristics • for satellite we get extended propagation delays • high bit error rate ‘BER’ (higher than optical fiber and coax.) • asymmetry in bandwidth and delay • unidirectional links • effects of wave propagation, attenuation,… etc. • 2- Mobility: continuous and introduces topology dynamics • 3- Power constraints in lots of the wireless devices 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  19. Wireless Link Characteristics (1) Differences from wired link …. • decreased signal strength: radio signal attenuates as it propagates through matter (path loss) • interference from other sources: standardized wireless network frequencies (e.g., 2.4 GHz) shared by other devices (e.g., phone); devices (motors) interfere as well • multipath propagation: radio signal reflects off objects ground, arriving ad destination at slightly different times …. make communication across (even a point to point) wireless link much more “difficult” 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  20. Wireless Link Characteristics (2) 10-1 10-2 • SNR: signal-to-noise ratio • larger SNR – easier to extract signal from noise (a “good thing”) • SNR versus BER tradeoffs • given physical layer: increase power -> increase SNR->decrease BER • given SNR: choose physical layer that meets BER requirement, giving highest thruput • SNR may change with mobility: dynamically adapt physical layer (modulation technique, rate) 10-3 10-4 BER 10-5 10-6 10-7 10 20 30 40 SNR(dB) QAM256 (8 Mbps) QAM16 (4 Mbps) BPSK (1 Mbps) Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  21. B A C C C’s signal strength A’s signal strength B A space Wireless network characteristics Multiple wireless senders and receivers create additional problems (beyond multiple access): Hidden terminal problem • B, A hear each other • B, C hear each other • A, C can not hear each other means A, C unaware of their interference at B Signal attenuation: • B, A hear each other • B, C hear each other • A, C can not hear each other interfering at B 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  22. 6.1 Introduction Wireless 6.2 Wireless links, characteristics CDMA 6.3 IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs (“wi-fi”) 6.4cellular Internet access architecture standards (e.g., GSM) Mobility 6.5 Principles: addressing and routing to mobile users 6.6 Mobile IP 6.7 Handling mobility in cellular networks 6.8 Mobility and higher-layer protocols 6.9Summary Chapter 6 outline 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  23. 802.11b 2.4-5 GHz unlicensed spectrum up to 11 Mbps direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) in physical layer (CDMA: code division multiple access) all hosts use same chipping code 802.11a 5-6 GHz range up to 54 Mbps 802.11g 2.4-5 GHz range up to 54 Mbps 802.11n: multiple antennae 2.4-5 GHz range up to 200 Mbps IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN • all use CSMA/CA for multiple access • all have base-station and ad-hoc network versions 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  24. AP AP Internet 802.11 LAN architecture • wireless host communicates with base station • base station = access point (AP) • Basic Service Set (BSS) (aka “cell”) in infrastructure mode contains: • wireless hosts • access point (AP): base station • ad hoc mode: hosts only hub, switch or router BSS 1 BSS 2 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  25. 802.11: Channels, association • 802.11b: 2.4GHz-2.485GHz spectrum divided into 11 channels at different frequencies • AP admin chooses frequency for AP • interference possible: channel can be same as that chosen by neighboring AP! • host: must associate with an AP • scans channels, listening for beacon frames containing AP’s name service set ID (SSID) and MAC address • selects AP to associate with • may perform authentication • will typically run DHCP to get IP address in AP’s subnet 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  26. 4 2 2 2 3 3 1 1 1 802.11: passive/active scanning BBS 1 BBS 1 BBS 2 BBS 2 AP 1 AP 1 AP 2 AP 2 H1 H1 • Active Scanning: • Probe Request frame broadcast from H1 • Probes response frame sent from APs • Association Request frame sent: H1 to selected AP • Association Response frame sent: selected AP to H1 • Passive Scanning: • beacon frames sent from APs • association Request frame sent: H1 to selected AP • association Response frame sent: selected AP to H1 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  27. B A C C C’s signal strength A’s signal strength B A space IEEE 802.11: multiple access • avoid collisions: 2+ nodes transmitting at same time • 802.11: CSMA - sense before transmitting • don’t collide with ongoing transmission by other node • 802.11: no collision detection! • difficult to receive (sense collisions) when transmitting due to weak received signals (fading) • can’t sense all collisions in any case: hidden terminal, fading • goal: avoid collisions: CSMA/C(ollision)A(voidance) 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  28. DIFS data SIFS ACK IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol: CSMA/CA sender receiver 802.11 sender 1 if sense channel idle for DIFSthen transmit entire frame (no CD) 2 ifsense channel busy then start random backoff time timer counts down while channel idle transmit when timer expires if no ACK, increase random backoff interval, repeat 2 802.11 receiver - if frame received OK return ACK after SIFS (ACK needed due to hidden terminal problem) Distributed Inter-frame Spacing (DIFS) Short Inter-frame Spacing (SIFS) 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  29. Hidden Terminal Problem in WLANs 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  30. Avoiding collisions: RTS/CTS idea: allow sender to “reserve” channel rather than random access of data frames: avoid collisions of long data frames • sender first transmits small request-to-send (RTS) packets to BS using CSMA • RTSs may still collide with each other (but they’re short) • BS broadcasts clear-to-send (CTS) in response to RTS • RTS heard by all nodes • sender transmits data frame • other stations defer transmissions avoid data frame collisions completely using small reservation packets! 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  31. RTS(B) RTS(A) reservation collision RTS(A) CTS(A) CTS(A) DATA (A) ACK(A) ACK(A) Collision Avoidance: RTS-CTS exchange B A AP defer time 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  32. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks Check Animations on-line (applet & ns)

  33. 6 4 2 2 6 6 6 2 0 - 2312 frame control duration address 1 address 2 address 3 address 4 payload CRC seq control 802.11 frame: addressing Address 4: used only in ad hoc mode Address 1: MAC address of wireless host or AP to receive this frame Address 3: MAC address of router interface to which AP is attached Address 2: MAC address of wireless host or AP transmitting this frame 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  34. router AP Internet R1 MAC addr AP MAC addr source address dest. address 802.3frame AP MAC addr H1 MAC addr R1 MAC addr address 3 address 2 address 1 802.11 frame 802.11 frame: addressing H1 R1 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  35. 6 4 2 2 6 6 6 2 0 - 2312 frame control duration address 1 address 2 address 3 address 4 payload CRC seq control 2 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Protocol version Type Subtype To AP From AP More frag Retry Power mgt More data WEP Rsvd 802.11 frame: more frame seq # (for reliable ARQ) duration of reserved transmission time (RTS/CTS) frame type (RTS, CTS, ACK, data) 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  36. H1 remains in same IP subnet: IP address can remain same switch: which AP is associated with H1? self-learning (Ch. 5): switch will see frame from H1 and “remember” which switch port can be used to reach H1 router 802.11: mobility within same subnet hub or switch BBS 1 AP 1 AP 2 H1 BBS 2 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  37. Rate Adaptation base station, mobile dynamically change transmission rate (physical layer modulation technique) as mobile moves, SNR varies 802.11: advanced capabilities 10-1 10-2 10-3 BER 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-7 10 20 30 40 SNR(dB) 1. SNR decreases, BER increase as node moves away from base station QAM256 (8 Mbps) QAM16 (4 Mbps) 2. When BER becomes too high, switch to lower transmission rate but with lower BER BPSK (1 Mbps) operating point Rate adaptation can change rate from 100Mbps to 1Mbps !! Does this affect higher protocol layers? 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  38. 802.11: advanced capabilities Power Management • node-to-AP: “I am going to sleep until next beacon frame” • AP knows not to transmit frames to this node • node wakes up before next beacon frame • beacon frame: contains list of mobiles with AP-to-mobile frames waiting to be sent • node will stay awake if AP-to-mobile frames to be sent; otherwise sleep again until next beacon frame (typically after 100msec) 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  39. P P P P P M M Master device Slave device Parked device (inactive) S S S S 802.15: personal area network • less than 10 m diameter • replacement for cables (mouse, keyboard, headphones) • ad hoc: no infrastructure • master/slaves: • slaves request permission to send (to master) • master grants requests • 802.15: evolved from Bluetooth specification • 2.4-2.5 GHz radio band • up to 721 kbps radius of coverage 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  40. 802.16: WiMAX point-to-point • like 802.11 & cellular: base station model • transmissions to/from base station by hosts with omnidirectional antenna • base station-to-base station backhaul with point-to-point antenna • unlike 802.11: • range ~ 6 miles (“city rather than coffee shop”) • ~14 Mbps point-to-multipoint 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  41. DL burst 1 DL burst n DL burst 2 SS #2 SS #k … … DL- MAP request conn. Initial maint. UL- MAP pream. … … uplink subframe downlink subframe SS #1 802.16: WiMAX: downlink, uplink scheduling • transmission frame • down-link subframe: base station to node • uplink subframe: node to base station base station tells nodes who will get to receive (DL map) and who will get to send (UL map), and when • WiMAX standard provide mechanism for scheduling, but not scheduling algorithm 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  42. 6.1 Introduction Wireless 6.2 Wireless links, characteristics CDMA 6.3 IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs (“wi-fi”) 6.4 Cellular Internet Access architecture standards (e.g., GSM) Mobility 6.5 Principles: addressing and routing to mobile users 6.6 Mobile IP 6.7 Handling mobility in cellular networks 6.8 Mobility and higher-layer protocols 6.9Summary Chapter 6 outline 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  43. connects cells to wide area net • manages call setup (more later!) • handles mobility (more later!) Mobile Switching Center Mobile Switching Center • covers geographical region • base station (BS) analogous to 802.11 AP • mobile users attach to network through BS • air-interface: physical and link layer protocol between mobile and BS Public telephone network, and Internet MSC cell wired network Components of cellular network architecture 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  44. Wireless Comm. Systems • In general a wireless communication network consists of: • 1- Users (mobile station) • 2- Base Station (BS): connects users to MSC • 3- Mobile Switching Center (MSC): • connects the base stations with each other, and to the PSTN (public switched telephone network) 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  45. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  46. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  47. Cellular Comm./Networking Terminology • Hand-off: the process of transferring the mobile from one base station to another • Roamer: a mobile operating in a coverage area other than the one in which it subscribed (moving to another MSC) 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  48. Cellular Telephone Systems • A cellular system services a large number of users over extended geographical coverage with limited frequency spectrum. • High capacity is attained by limiting the coverage of the base station to a cell, so that the same frequency can be re-used in other cells • A problem may occur when moving from one cell to another while keeping the call un-interrupted. [the hand-off problem] 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  49. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

  50. Design concepts: The Cellular Concept and Frequency Re-use • The cellular concept was introduced to solve the problem of frequency limitation (or spectral congestion) and user capacity • Replace a single high power base station with several lower power base stations, each covering a smaller geographical area, a ‘cell’. • Each of the base stations is allocated a number of channels (portion of the overall system channels) 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks