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Applied Sanitation in Wine Making. 2005 WinePress.US WineFest Denver, Colorado. It really does…. How Much Time is Spent Cleaning by the Pro’s?. A LOT. Goals for Today. Understand the Principles of Cleaning Theory Physico-Chemical Interactions

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applied sanitation in wine making

Applied Sanitation in Wine Making

2005 WinePress.US WineFest

Denver, Colorado

goals for today
Goals for Today
  • Understand the Principles of Cleaning
    • Theory
    • Physico-Chemical Interactions
  • Discuss the Key Sites and Actions in Cleaning
    • CCP’s (Critical Control Points)
    • Fermentation Management/”Controlled Infection”
  • Present the Specifics in Use
    • Types of Products Out There
some definitions
Some Definitions
  • Cleaning: Removing Soil and/or Biofilm
  • Sanitizing: Log 3 Reduction (99.9%) of Microorganisms in System
  • Disinfection: Log 5 Reduction (99.999%) of Microorganisms in System
  • Sterilizing: Complete Elimination of Life
the components of clean
The Components of Clean

Chemical Action

Mechanical Action



big effects for wine makers
Big Effects for Wine Makers

Chemical Action

Mechanical Action

Physico-Chemical Action



physico chemical reactions
Physico-Chemical Reactions
  • Wetting
    • Responsible for water getting between soils and substrates.
    • Often called the “peel-up” effect.
  • Deflocculation
    • Performed action of alkali, silicates and agitation.
    • Bulky solids are broken into smaller pieces and easily removed.
  • Suspension
    • Detergents, alkalies, and silicates hold particles in suspension to prevent redeposition and easier removal.
physico chemical reactions1
Physico-Chemical Reactions
  • Dissolution
    • Water soluble soils such as sugars and starches are removed by water and the compounds that aid in this process.
  • Emulsification
    • Fats and oils are broken into small globules which are suspended in the washing solution.
    • Performed by detergents and alkalies.
  • Neutralization
    • Much of the soil is acidic and alkaline wash componds removes it by altering its properties
physico chemical reactions2
Physico-Chemical Reactions
  • Suspension
    • Once soils are broken from the substrate, suspension is necessary to allow rinsing.
  • Oxidation
    • Some cleaning compounds will oxidized/decolorize stains that are left behind on wood and plastic surfaces.
is sterility a must
Is Sterility a Must?
  • We don’t Need Sterility
    • Vintner’s yeast competes easily with wild yeasts, fungus, mold, and bacteria– especially at the lower pH’s that we usually have in wine.
  • We don’t Want Sterility
    • Sometimes wines may benefit from something extra…
      • Brettanomyces, perhaps?
      • A little lactic sourness?
using what we re learning
Using What We’re Learning
  • What basic rules should you follow?
  • Where are your critical points?
  • How should you vary your methods?
  • What chemicals should you use?
  • What equipment should you use?
basic rules
Basic Rules
  • Clean everything BEFORE you use it. And then sanitize.
    • Even new equipment
  • Clean everything AFTER you use it. Right after. Now.
    • Bottles, too!
  • Clean the winery premises, not just the equipment, on a regular basis.
  • Keep the winery free of clutter.
  • Watch for pests (bacteria, mold, wild yeast, rodents, etc.), remove them, and prevent their return.
  • Deal with pomace IMMEDIATELY.
some areas of concern
Some Areas of Concern
  • General Environment of the Winery
  • Storage Areas
    • Equipment
    • Fermenters
    • Bottles
    • Additives/Ingredients
  • Cellar
tools of the trade
Tools of the Trade
  • Water
    • Hose with a nozzle
    • Jet Blaster (manual or faucet/hose mounted)
  • Brushes (many)
    • Long handled
    • Bendable
    • Soft for plastic, stiff for wood
  • A Stand to drain Hoses, Bottles, Fermenters, Carboys…
special cases barrels
Special Cases: Barrels
  • There’s no good way to deal with old barrels that have “gone off…”
    • Chemicals will either taint the wood or extract essence. Of course, the latter is preferable.
  • But here are some ideas.
    • Treat barrels right
      • Don’t let them dry out.
      • Store with a MBS/citric acid solution (2 oz/2 oz/5 gal water)
      • Clean the outside as well as the inside!
    • Recover with a percarbonate based cleaner (1 Tbsp/gal), let sit 24 hours, rinse, then rinse with citric acid (0.5 tsp/gal).
special cases teca and tca poly chloroanisoles
Special Cases: TeCA and TCA (poly-Chloroanisoles)
  • Compounds that cause musty off-flavors and aromas in finished wine
  • Generated by the use of chlorine bleach in cleaning and sanitizing operations
    • Chlorine reacts with phenols present in must soils and pomace to create chlorophenols
    • Chlorophenol metabolization by mold produces pCA.
  • Flavor threshold is about 5 parts per trillion
the end any questions

THE END(Any Questions?)

Thanks to:


Joel Sommer

Terry Neve

Pat Cuthbert

Jay Spence

Ed Slonaker

Jeff Wingo

“All you guys”