lepidium latifolium a k a n.
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Lepidium latifolium A.K.A. Dittander Dittany Broad-leaf Pepperweed Peppergrass Pepperwort Perennial Peppercress Perennial Pepperweed Tall Pepperweed Tall Whitetop Whitetop Ect., ect., ect. Characteristics:. Perennial herb Brassicaceae (Mustard Family)

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lepidium latifolium a k a
LepidiumlatifoliumA.K.A.

Dittander

Dittany

Broad-leaf Pepperweed

Peppergrass

Pepperwort

Perennial Peppercress

Perennial Pepperweed

Tall Pepperweed

Tall Whitetop

Whitetop

Ect., ect., ect.

characteristics
Characteristics:
  • Perennial herb
  • Brassicaceae (Mustard Family)
  • Related to broccoli, beets, cabbage, canola, and other crops
  • Erect, up to 6 feet tall
  • Roots up to 10 feet long!
  • Distinguish rosettes from natives with long stemmed leaves (natives are sessile)
where is it
Where is it?

Native to SE Europe & SW Asia, uncommon

Arrived with beet seed from Europe before 1840

17 million acres in West

20,000 acres of the Truckee river

Primarily a riparian species

But, is now found in drier rangelands

Is it adapting more?

why are they doing so well
Why are they doing so well?

Characteristics

Competition

Gets to the water table faster than natives

Survives flooding

Survives trampling

Sucks up Ca+ salts and leaves it on top of soil

Cattle and deer avoid it

  • Extremely long straight taproots
  • Can tolerate saturated soil for long periods
  • Sprouts from root fragments (like a potato)
  • Alters soil characteristics
  • Tastes really BAD
how it is changing our landscape
How it is changing our landscape.

Displacing native vegetation

Bad forage

Take up a lot of water

Increasing stream incision

Creates light impermeable layer of duff

how does it fit our 10 hypothesis
How does it fit our 10 hypothesis?

Competition hypothesis:

Escape from enemy constraints:

Maybe…

Biocontrols are under study

Not sure if bugs are limiting

Don’t care

  • Definitely!
  • Takes over riparian areas
  • Shades out neighbors
  • Reaches water table better
how does it fit our 10 hypothesis1
How does it fit our 10 hypothesis?

Variable Resource Availability:

Disturbance and Land use:

Riparian areas frequently flood

And frequently damaged by livestock

  • Ruderal species
  • Grows tall fast
  • High density + long root = lowers water table below what natives are used to
methods of control and other theories
Methods of Control and other Theories

Submerging for a very long time (2years?)

Mow and spray with white leaf rust (fungus)

Mite from Turkey

Leaf hopper from Elko

Stem boring maggots

goats
Goats !!

Can be trained to selectively eat perennial Pepperweed

sources cited
Sources Cited:
  • http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=LELA2
  • http://www.unce.unr.edu/programs/sites/tallwhitetop/
  • http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/leplat/habitat.jpg
  • http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/lela1.htm
  • http://www.invasivespecies.net/database/species/ecology.asp?si=996&fr=1&sts=&lang=EN
  • http://www.weedid.wisc.edu/idpics/sized_650/lepidium_latifolium4_650.jpg
  • http://flora.nhm-wien.ac.at/Seiten-Arten/Lepidium-latifolium.htm
  • Brain Rector, Elizabeth Leger, and of course….Robert Nowak & Erin Georgen