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Chapter 28. New Frontier a nd the Great Society. Followed launch of Sputnik, U-2 incident, and Cuba’s alliance with the USSR Nixon vs. Kennedy Kennedy looked better and more confident because of televised debates Nixon had hoped to show Kennedy’s inexperience (JFK was only 43 when elected)

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chapter 28
Chapter 28

New Frontier


the Great Society

election of 1960

Followed launch of Sputnik, U-2 incident, and Cuba’s alliance with the USSR

  • Nixon vs. Kennedy
    • Kennedy looked better and more confident because of televised debates
    • Nixon had hoped to show Kennedy’s inexperience (JFK was only 43 when elected)

*image started to become just as

important as policy*

Election of 1960
kennedy and civil rights

Martin Luther King Jr. was sentenced to jail

    • Eisenhower and Nixon refused to get involved
    • JFK called MLK’s wife, his brother had MLK released on bail
Kennedy and Civil Rights

Term referring to the Kennedy’s time in office

  • America was fascinated by the family, “America’s Royalty”
    • Influenced fashion, education, and culture
  • JFK surrounded himself with the best cabinet members he could find
    • Dean of Harvard, president of Ford, president of Rockefeller
military policy

JFK feared that the Soviets were gaining favor in Latin America, Asia and Africa

    • especially Cuba
  • didn’t like Eisenhower’s policy of threatening massive retaliation
  • developed program of “flexible response”
    • prepare for a variety of military responses to any kind of international crisis rather than nuclear attacks
      • created the Special Forces – Green Berets
      • increased military spending
      • tripled US nuclear capabilities
Military Policy
fidel castro

Cuban leader - communist, welcomed aid from Soviets

    • Castro had promised a democracy, helped to depose a dictator, then took over himself
    • Seized sugar farms and turned them into communes for peasants
    • US blockaded Cuban products
    • Many Cubans feared Castro, and escaped to the US
Fidel Castro

at the end of his term, Eisenhower cut off diplomatic relations with Cuba

  • was secretly training Cuban exiles to invade Cuba
bay of pigs

April, 17 1961 – trained Cuban exiles land in the “Bay of Pigs” in Cuba

  • Air force strike failed to knock out Cuban air force
  • Advance group sent to distract Castro and his troops never reached the shore
  • Main unit landed, and was heavily outnumbered
  • JFK took blame for the failure
    • Paid $53 million in food and medical supplies to release hostages
Bay of Pigs
cuban missile crisis

Soviet Premier Khrushchev promised to aid Cuba

    • Summer 1962 – Soviet weapons and nuclear missiles were offloaded
  • JFK said that the US would not tolerate offensive nuclear weapons in Cuba
    • Last straw – photographs showed Soviet missile bases that were ready to be launched
  • JFK publicized this fact, and informed the US that in case of an attack, it would cause all-out war with the Soviets
Cuban Missile Crisis
cuban missile crisis1

US Navy blockaded Cuba to prevent more weapons from arriving

  • Soviet ships backed down from conflict
    • Khrushchev offered to remove the missiles if the US agreed to remove missiles aimed at the USSR from Turkey
Cuban Missile Crisis
aftermath of the cmc

Khrushchev lost credibility in USSR

  • Kennedy was disliked for using brinkmanship rather than diplomacy
    • Some thought Kennedy lost an opportunity to “take back Cuba”
  • Castro refused to allow any exiles to return to Cuba, allowed family members of exiles to leave (hundreds of thousands left the country)
Aftermath of the CMC

1961 – 3 million East Germans fled to West Berlin to escape communist rule

    • Showed weakness in East German government
  • Khrushchev threatened to close off US access to West Berlin, Kennedy refused
    • JFK’s determination and the threat of US nuclear missiles prevented Khrushchev from blockading West Berlin
berlin wall

Khrushchev built a wall between East Germany and West Berlin

    • Surrounded West Berlin
    • Barriers were 10-15 feet high, made of cement and steel and barbed wire
    • Patrolled by soldiers with machine guns, guarded by electric fences
  • People no longer could flee East Germany
  • Was an ugly symbol of communist oppression
  • Lasted until 1989
Berlin Wall
easing tensions

Kennedy and Khrushchev acknowledged the tension between them

  • Created a “hot line” between them to talk immediately in case another crisis occurred
  • Limited Test Ban Treaty – no nuclear testing in the atmosphere
Easing Tensions

JFK wanted his term as president to be marked by reforms that propelled America past what other countries were able to do

    • New Frontier – JFK’s name for his plan to progress
      • Explore new areas in science and space
      • Decrease poverty and end the wasting of surplus goods
      • Provide medical care for elderly
      • Give aid to schools
      • Urban renewal

Could not get support from Congress (majority Republicans and Southern Democrats)

  • JFK was able to find ways to boost the economy, build up national defense, help other nation and fund NASA
stimulating the economy

1960 – US was in a recession

  • Gov’t used deficit spending to fund itself and lower taxes
    • Funded National Defense (nuclear missiles, nuclear subs, expand armed services)
  • Raised minimum wage to $1.25
  • Extended unemployment insurance
  • Assisted cities with percentages of unemployment
Stimulating the Economy
peace corps alliance for progress

Peace Corps – program of volunteers that would help teach, work as agricultural advisers, health aides or other needed roles

    • Volunteered in Asia, Africa and Latin America
    • Many were recently graduated college students
  • Alliance for Progress – offered economic and technical assistance to Latin America
    • Invested almost $12 million
      • Partially created to keep Latin America from siding with Castro
Peace Corps & Alliance for Progress
race to the moon

April 12, 1961 – Yuri Gagarin is first man in space

  • May 5, 1961 – Alan Shepard is first American in space
  • US launched a satellite that was able relay television images from space
  • NASA created launch facilities
  • July 10, 1969 – Neil Armstrong is first man to walk on the moon
  • As a result – schools and universities put new emphasis on science and technology
Race to the Moon
domestic issues

Gov’t was spending millions on progress, but millions of Americans were barely able to feed themselves

  • Civil Rights demonstrations began occurring in the South
  • JFK called for a “national assault on the causes of poverty” and began to focus on helping those in need
  • Justice Department investigated racial injustices in the South
  • JFK created a civil rights bill, and cut taxes by $10 billion
Domestic Issues
assassination of jfk

Nation was split over opinion of Kennedy

    • Loved by some
    • Others hated him because of his stance on civil rights
  • November 22, 1963 – JFK lands in Dallas to meet with Texas Democrats
  • Rode in an open limo, was cheered by thousands of people
Assassination of JFK
assassination of jfk1

Suddenly, shots were fired, and JFK had been assassinated

    • Lee Harvey Oswald had fired the rifle that killed the president
      • Former Marine, lived in USSR, supported Castro
    • Oswald was killed as he was being transported between jails
  • VP Johnson was immediately sworn in as president
Assassination of JFK

Some thought the assassination of JFK was a conspiracy

  • 1963 – Warren Commission investigated the claim, said Oswald acted on his own
  • 1979 – a new investigation found that Oswald may have been part of a conspiracy
    • 2 may have shot the president
    • Others were involved in the plans
    • Anti-Castro Cubans? Communists? CIA?
lbj s presidency

LBJ urged Congress to pass the civil rights and tax-cut bills that JFK wanted

  • Congress passed the tax reduction, which helped the economy
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964 – cannot be discrimination based on race, religion, nation of origin or sex – federal gov’t also had the power to enforce this act
LBJ’s Presidency
lbj s presidency1

War on Poverty – wanted to alleviate the problems of poverty

    • Economic Opportunity Act - $1 billion for youth programs, antipoverty measures, small business loans and job training
    • Created:
      • Job Corps Youth Training Program
      • VISTA (Volunteers In Service To America)
      • Head Start
      • Community Action Program
LBJ’s Presidency
election of 1964

Most of America supported LBJ

    • Liked his actions to help the people of the US
    • Wanted to get involved in Vietnam
  • With so much support, LBJ was able to pass his reform program
Election of 1964
great society

LBJ’s reform program and vision for America (wanted to raise the standard of living)

  • Inspired by FDR’s New Deal
    • Education: Elementary and Secondary Education Act - $1 billion in aid to schools to purchase new textbooks and library materials
    • Healthcare: Medicare – Hospital insurance and low-cost medical insurance for people 65 and older
    • Medicaid – health care insurance to welfare recipients
Great Society
great society1

Housing: built low-rent housing, created programs to help low/moderate income families get better housing, created Department of Housing and Urban Development

  • Immigration: Immigration Act of 1965 – abolished quotas on immigration, allowed non-European immigrants
  • Environment: Water Quality Act of 1965 – states had to clean up rivers, gov’t had to find the worst polluters
  • Consumer Protection: passed safety laws – truth-in-packaging, automobile safety laws, meat and food products
Great Society
warren court

Nickname for Supreme Court under Chief Justice Warren

    • Brown v. Board of Education
    • Banned state-sanctioned prayer in schools
    • State-required loyalty oaths deemed unconstitutional
    • Limited power of communities to ban books and movies
    • People have the ability to protest in ways that do not harm others or interrupt the daily working of schools of businesses
    • Changed reapportionment systems
      • States change election districts based on population
Warren Court
warren court1

Baker v. Carr – Court can tell states to redraw their districts

  • Reynolds v. Sims – one person, one vote
  • Evidence seized illegally cannot be used in court
  • Free legal counsel provided for those who can’t afford it
  • An accused person has the right to have a lawyer present during police questioning
  • Miranda v. Arizona - Suspects must be read their rights before questioning
Warren Court
impact of great society

LBJ greatly extended the power of the federal gov’t

  • Percentage of “poor” people declined 10%
  • Many proposals were difficult to accomplish
  • Great Society grew the federal deficit
  • Conservatives disliked the liberal decisions made by the gov’t
    • Former actor Ronald Reagan began gaining popularity
  • LBJ labelled as a peaceful person, changed that identity when US entered Vietnam War
Impact of Great Society