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Chapter 28

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  1. Chapter 28 Surgical Instrumentsand Aseptic Technique

  2. Learning Objectives • Name and describe the commonly used surgical instruments • State advantages of surgical stapling and list common surgical stapling devices • List commonly used instruments and equipment for ophthalmic, orthopedic, and arthroscopic procedures

  3. Learning Objectives • List surgical instruments and supplies routinely included in general and emergency surgical packs for small and large animals • Describe procedures for cleaning, packing, and sterilizing instruments • Differentiate between sterilization and disinfection

  4. Learning Objectives • List and describe physical and chemical methods of sterilization and methods of quality control of sterilization methods • State safe storage times for sterile packs • List and describe common antiseptic and disinfectant agents

  5. Learning Objectives • Describe preparation requirements for patients, including skin preparation, patient positioning, and draping • Describe preparation requirements for the surgical team and explain the procedures that may be used for hand scrubbing before surgery • Describe the procedure for donning surgical attire • Describe procedures for opening sterile items

  6. Technician’s Role During Surgery • Maintain aseptic technique • Assist in surgery • Immobilization of body part • Tissue retraction • Hemostasis control • Anticipate instruments needed

  7. General Surgery Instruments • Thousands of different instruments • Increase efficiency • Ease performance • Specific purpose for each instrument

  8. The most commonly used materail is stainless steel, which is an alloy of iron, chromium, silicon, manganese, nickel, molybdenum, sulfur, phosphorus, and titanium. There are 2 basic compound types: • Martensitic- high carbon and low chromium content, rendering it very strong, highly magnetic, and susceptible to corrosion. i.e. thumb forceps, hemostats, retractors,etc. • Austenitic- stainless steel is compounded mainly of chromium and nickel. Superior in that is has high tensile strength and is very resistant to corrosion i.e. implants, pans, bowls, handles, and trays

  9. Scalpels

  10. Biomedical Lasers • Most common types • Carbon dioxide • Neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet • Advantages • Disadvantages

  11. Electrosurgery • Electric current passes through tissue • Cut tissue • Coagulate tissue • Monopolar electrosurgery • Bipolar electrosurgery

  12. Monopolar Electrosurgery

  13. Bipolar Electrosurgery

  14. Scissors

  15. Needle Holders

  16. Basic Components of aNeedle Holder

  17. Thumb Forceps

  18. Close-up of Tips of Thumb Forceps

  19. Close-up of Tips of Thumb Forceps

  20. Tissue Forceps

  21. Close-up of Tips of Tissue Forceps

  22. Hemostatic Forceps

  23. Close-up of Jaws of Hemostatic Forceps

  24. More Hemostatic Forceps

  25. Close-up of Jawsof Hemostatic Forceps