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consider: How would you describe Teddy Roosevelt based on the cartoons seen here?
essential question: What were the effects of progressivism in the national government in the early 1900s?PART 1: THE FIRST PROGRESSIVE PRESIDENT
Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt Background: • popular progressive politician that becomes McKinley’s VP
The 3 C’s of his Square Deal 1st = Control corporations • accepted big business, but attacked irresponsible ones as the “Trust Buster”
first president to mediate between owners and labor in the Anthracite coal miners’ strike
2nd = Consumer protection • unchecked business created dangers for consumers What is the problem with the following products of the time?
after The Jungle, TR gets passed the: • Pure Food and Drug Act • Meat Inspection Act • Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
3rd = Conservation of natural resources President Theodore Roosevelt (left) and John Muir had long talks about conservation while camping together at Glacier Point, Yosemite National Park, 1903. "There can be nothing in the world more beautiful than the Yosemite, the groves of the giant sequoias and redwoods, the Canyon of the Colorado, the Canyon of the Yellowstone, the Three Tetons; and our people should see to it that they are preserved for their children and their children's children forever, with their majestic beauty all marred." -Theodore Roosevelt
3rd = Conservation of natural resources TR riding a moose in 1900
expanded national parks and forests After he became President in 1901, Roosevelt used his authority to protect wildlife and public lands by creating the U.S. Forest Service and establishing 51 Federal Bird Reservations, 4 National Game Preserves, 150 National Forests, 5 National Parks, and enabling the 1906 American Antiquities Act which he used to proclaim 18 National Monuments. During his presidency,Theodore Roosevelt protected approximately 230,000,000 acres of public land.
consider: How would you describe William Howard Taft based on the cartoons seen here? “Teddy Had a Little Lamb”
TR’s hand-picked successor; TR expected Taft to continue his progressive reforms “Teddy Had a Little Lamb”
some progressive reforms, but overall more conservative than TR (i.e. raising taxes on imports with Payne-Aldrich Tariff) Taft “busted” more trusts than TR (he did not distinguish between “good” and “bad” trusts), including U.S. Steel, a trust personally approved by TR & Taft fired TR’s good friend, Gifford Pinchot, who was appointed by TR as the first Chief of the United States Forest Service, for speaking out against Taft.
consider: How would you describe the election of 1912 based on the cartoons seen here? Taft TR
Taft wins Republican nomination, so TR forms Progressive Party (a.k.a. Bull Moose Party)
The bullet-damaged speech and eyeglass case. X-Ray of Roosevelt's ribcage showing the bullet at lower left.
this split Republican vote, so Democrat Wilson wins The voters’ reluctance to break the two-term precedent also hurt TR’s chances of winning.
consider: How would you describe Woodrow Wilson based on the cartoon seen here?
his New Freedom progressive program continued progressive reforms such as…
the Federal Reserve System (a.k.a. the “Fed”) to control the economy (i.e. setting interest rates, supervising banks) map of the 12 Federal Reserve Districts and the cities where each bank is located seal of the Board of Governors that supervise the Fed
Clayton Antitrust Act so that there is a more clear law making trusts illegal Clayton Antitrust Act The Sherman Anti-Trust Act left a lot of room for interpretation in the law because it was vaguely worded.
Look over the chart. How are these Presidents’ progressive reforms changing the federal government?
Political cartoons are a common way that ideas about politics are conveyed. Based on what we have learned about the Progressive Presidents, say what each political cartoon means in your own words. Often, saying what is literally happening but calling things what they are labeled will produce the idea of the cartoon.
The Progressive Era: Political Cartoons Judge Reforms The role of political cartoons in society is to judge things that are happening, such as reforms. Create your own political cartoon to judge the reforms in the Progressive Era (see pages 60-63). Use the rubric to guide your efforts. Some Progressive Era cartoons are provided below as examples.