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Test and Test Equipment December 2012 Hsin -Chu , Taiwan. Roger Barth. Chapter Content. Test Drivers & Challenges Test & Yield Learning Test Cost Concurrent/Adaptive Test 3D Device Test Test Technology Requirements Test parallelism DFx
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Chapter Content • Test Drivers & Challenges • Test & Yield Learning • Test Cost • Concurrent/Adaptive Test • 3D Device Test • Test Technology Requirements • Test parallelism • DFx • Device types: Logic, Memory, RF/AMS, MEMS/Imaging/LCD drivers • Device handling (Handlers, Probers) • Device contacting (probecards and test sockets) ITRS 2012 Test and Test Equipment – Hsin-Chu, Taiwan
2012 Test Contributors Kenichi Anzou Dave Armstrong John Aslanian Roger Barth Yi Cai KrishnenduChakrabarty TapanChakraborty SreejitChakravarty Wendy Chen William Chui Steve Comen Zoe Conroy Adam Cron Al Crouch Ted Eaton Stefan Eichenberger Bill Eklow Paul Emmett Ira Feldman Francois-Fabien Ferhani Shawn Fetterolf Paul Franzon Piergiorgio Galletta Anne Gattiker Sandeep Goel Kazumi Hatayama Hirokazu Hirayama Hisao Horibe Shuichi Ito Hongshin Jun Masahiro Kanase Rohit Kapur Toshiaki Kato Brion Keller Ajay Khoche Satoru Kitagawa Marc Knox Masashi Kondo Ken Lanier Lenny Leon Marc Loranger Erik Jan Marinissen Peter Maxwell Cedric Mayor Teresa McLaurin Milanjan Mukherjee Takeshi Nagasaka Masaaki Namba Naoaki Narumi Phil Nigh Akitoshi Nishimura Hermann Obermeir Jayson Park Mike Peng-Li Frank Poehl Chris Portelli-Hale Bill Price Herb Reiter Mike Ricchetti Michael Rodgers Tomonori Sasaki Keno Sato Masayuki Sato Yasuo Sato Ryuji Shimizu Yoichi Shimizu Fumio Sonoda Hiroyoshi Suzuki Tetsuo Tada Satoru Takeda Steven Tilden Erik Volkerink Adam Wright Yervant Zorian ITRS 2012 Test and Test Equipment – Hsin-Chu, Taiwan
2012 Table Change Highlights • Parallelism • Adjusted commodity DRAM to full wafer probing • Prober • 450mm production delayed from 2015 2017 • Probing • Added wafer probing test frequencies (MPU, DRAM, NAND, LCD) • Added pad probing force for wirebond and bump • Logic • Refocused the table to provide solid ATE requirements • EDA suppliers heavily involved in table generation • Single ended signal performance increased • DFT • 1-2 year slip of some DFT implementations • RF table • Increase in the number of radio ports over time; some pull-ins ITRS 2012 Test and Test Equipment – Hsin-Chu, Taiwan
Drivers • Device trends • Bandwidth (# of signals and data rates) • Integration of emerging and non-digital CMOS technologies • Complex electrical and mechanical characteristics • 3 Dimensional silicon - multi-die and Multi-layer • Fault Tolerant Architectures and Protocols • Test process complexity • Device customization and traceability during the test process • Adaptive test and Feedback data for tuning manufacturing • Concurrent Test of IP Blocks • Economic Scaling of Test • Physical and economic limits of test parallelism • Managing (logic) test data and feedback data volume (Time and Storage) • Managing cost effectiveness of DUT interface hardware ITRS 2012 Test and Test Equipment – Hsin-Chu, Taiwan
Increasing Complexity • 20122025 MPU & SoC • 30x increase in Transistors per die • 7x increase in total cores • Transistor use is consistent over time • Memory: ~83% • Cores:13% ~7x increase ~30x increase ITRS 2012 Test and Test Equipment – Hsin-Chu, Taiwan
Test Vector Data Volume & Compression ITRS 2012 Test and Test Equipment – Hsin-Chu, Taiwan • Managing test data volume and associated cost is a challenge • Flat MPU DV will approach petabits by 2030 • 100x reduction possible with compression • SoC Flat DV will near 10 terabits • Potentially 10,000x reduction with compression
Multi-die / SiP Test Cost Components Highly Complex vs. single die ITRS 2012 Test and Test Equipment – Hsin-Chu, Taiwan
Test Cost Survey Update Test Cost Metrics Cost per unit % of total Product Cost Cost per second Cost per megabit 2009 2011 Future Cost Drivers New Defects and Reliability problems Test Requirements of packaging Interfacing - NEW Data (yield learning, traceability, test data) - NEW Current Test Cost Drivers ATE capital Interface hardware ATE utilization - NEW Test program development Test Time and Coverage Future cost control Methods Wafer-level At Speed testing Advanced embedded instruments Adaptive Test New contacting technologies In system testing - NEW Built-in Fault Tolerance Current cost control Methods Test Parallelism Structural Test & Scan Compression/DFT/BIST/BOST Adaptive Test Concurrent Test Wafer-level at-speed testing ITRS 2012 Test and Test Equipment – Hsin-Chu, Taiwan
Difficult Challenges • Cost of Test and Overall Equipment Efficiency • Interface Hardware, setup/flex, lot sizes • Test Development gating volume production • Increasing device complexity -> more complex test development • Detecting Systemic Defects • Line width variations, dopant distributions, systemic process defects • Screening for reliability • Erraticor intermittent device behavior • Mechanical damage during the testing process • Multi-die stacks/TSV ITRS 2012 Test and Test Equipment – Hsin-Chu, Taiwan
Future Opportunities • Test Program Automation • Automatic generation of an entire test program • Tester independent test programming language • Resolve Mixed Signal test programming challenges • Diagnosis in the Presence of Data Compression • Simulation and Modeling • Seamless integration of CAD layout, simulation & modeling into the test process • Move to a higher level of abstraction with Protocol Aware test resources • Focused test generation based on layout, modeling, and adaptive feedback • Design for Self Test ITRS 2012 Test and Test Equipment – Hsin-Chu, Taiwan
Test Technique Progression Novel self test and repair techniques System Test Structural Test With Advanced Compression There has been significant test technique evolution over time to reduce test time and data volume Cost of Test More progress is required to get to the ultimate goal Structural Test With Compression Structural Test Functional Test ITRS 2012 Test and Test Equipment – Hsin-Chu, Taiwan
Fault Tolerance • Known Good Devices “Not Known Bad Devices” • Errors are okay…but must be dealt with • Concept is not new (redundancy, dynamic repair, BISR) • On die/system vs. off die/system fault tolerance • Smarter protocol aware testers for interface test • Dealing with non-deterministic data ITRS 2012 Test and Test Equipment – Hsin-Chu, Taiwan
Adaptive Test • Modified testing based on analysis of real-time results • Benefits • Fast Test Time Reduction • Fast yield learning • Lower cost • Higher Quality • Requires data infrastructure • Database • Analysis tools • Confidence • Implementationis evolving and custom ITRS 2012 Test and Test Equipment – Hsin-Chu, Taiwan
3D Device Testing Challenges • Die level test access to all die in the stack • Communication thru the top die in the stack • Test Flow / Cost / Resources • Test partitioning, non-traditional test structure • Die to Die Interactions • Signal routing thru another die • Debug / Diagnosis • DFT, design partitioning • Test data management, distribution, & security • Power management and implications ITRS 2012 Test and Test Equipment – Hsin-Chu, Taiwan
2013 Plans • 3D / “Cube” device test • Test step insertion / flow for TSV • Managing power & heat • Singulated die/stack handling • Reliability wafer test requirements • DFT / BISx via new methods – New Focus Team • 3D devices • Eliminate digital test data and test programs • RF / AMS parametric testing • MEMS • Cost & adaptive test section updates • Concurrent test • System Test • CMOS image sensor testing ITRS 2012 Test and Test Equipment – Hsin-Chu, Taiwan
Summary • 3D stacked devices will change test paradigms • The methods and approach seem available • Considerable work ahead to implement • Adaptive testing is becoming a standard approach • Significant test data accumulation, distribution, and analysis challenges • Fault tolerant device test presents a challenge • Managing cost is overall challenge • Industry is pulling in cost reduction methodology ITRS 2012 Test and Test Equipment – Hsin-Chu, Taiwan