Tactical Nutrition Brief. CREATED BY: Jim Sherrard, MS, RD, CHPD Head, Deployment health & wellness Center, Naval Hospital Pensacola Breanne Watts , Intern, Deployment Health & Wellness Center Community Health education Student, University of west Florida. Table of Contents.
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Tactical Nutrition Brief CREATED BY: Jim Sherrard, MS, RD, CHPD Head, Deployment health & wellness Center, Naval Hospital Pensacola Breanne Watts, Intern, Deployment Health & Wellness Center Community Health education Student, University of west Florida
Table of Contents • Introduction to Nutrition & Physical Activity • Facts & Statistics • 5 Fundamentals of Nutrition • The Big Three • MRE’s • 10 Nutrition Tips to Live by • Balancing Calories • Portion Control • Sum it Up • Resources
“…providing or obtaining food necessary for health and growth” NUTRITION
Nutrition Why is Nutrition Important? Conditions: HEALTHY PEOPLE 2020 • Diet and body weight are related to health status • Reduce the risks for many health conditions • Essential to daily performance and military occupation
“…any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health or wellness” PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
Physical Activity Why is physical activity important? Conditions: HEALTHY PEOPLE 2020 Regular physical activity can improve the health and quality of life of Americans of all ages, regardless of the presence of a chronic disease or disability Can also lower the risk for many health conditions
Table of Contents Introduction to Nutrition & Physical Activity • Facts & Statistics • 5 Fundamentals of Nutrition • The Big Three • MRE’s • 10 Nutrition Tips to Live by • Balancing Calories • Portion Control • Shopping List • Resources
Facts & Statistics More than 80 percent of adults do not meet the guidelines for both aerobic and muscle-strengthening activities. More than two-thirds (68.8 percent) of adults are considered to be overweight or obese. More than one-third (35.7 percent) of adults are considered to be obese. CDC
Facts & Statistics In 2008, only 37% of military personnel met the healthy weight criterion (BMI ≥18.5 and <25.0), which is notably below the Healthy People 2010 objective of ≥60% Compared with rates for civilians, heavy alcohol use is higher for military. Among the use of illicit drugs, smoking tobacco, and alcohol, military personnel showed the highest rates of heavy alcohol use In 2008, 13% of military personnel consumed three or more servings of fruits per day, and 14% consumed three or more servings of vegetables per day (notably lower than the Healthy People 2010 objectives of ≥75% for fruits and ≥50% for vegetables) DoD HRB Survey 2008
Table of Contents Introduction to Nutrition & Physical Activity Facts & Statistics • 5 Fundamentals of Nutrition • The Big Three • MRE’s • 10 Nutrition Tips to Live by • Balancing Calories • Portion Control • Sum it Up • Resources
EAT CLEAN EAT OFTEN HYDRATE MINDSET RECOVER 5 Fundamentals of Nutrition NOFFS
Eat Clean • Try to eat foods in the most natural form possible • Eat foods closest to their original form • Least processed types of food, most of the time • Think Nutrient Density • Foods with more nutrients but less calories • Carbohydrate, Protein, & Fat
Eat Often Timing of meals Key to Energy & Sustainability • Eat mini meals every 2-3 hours • Maintains energy levels • Helps to maintain focus • Prevents becoming overly hungry • Better choices • Stabilizes blood sugar • Boosts metabolism • Keeps body in fat burning zone
Hydrate • WATER… • Performance essential • Aids in digestion/metabolism • Brain function • Regulating temperature • Regulates body temperature • Carries nutrients & oxygen cells • Provides life & shape to every cell • Shock absorption for spine & brain • Cushions joints • Weight Management • Delivery of fuel to muscles • 60-65% of total body weight is water
Mindset Behavior change Lifestyle versus diet 80/20 rule Use tools & resources available to you Focus on results, they are rewarding
Recover Don’t Waste Your Workout! Nutrition • Can help to speed the recovery process • Empty fuel stores & broken down muscles need to be re-fueled and repaired • Combination of carbohydrates & proteins within 30 minutes ensures a fast recovery. • Helps minimize time needed between workouts • Decreases the risk of injury Carbohydrates = Re-fuel Protein = Re-build
Table of Contents Introduction to Nutrition & Physical Activity Facts & Statistics 5 Fundamentals of Nutrition • The Big Three • MRE’s • 10 Nutrition Tips to Live by • Balancing Calories • Portion Control • Sum it Up • Resources
The Big Three Macronutrients: Daily Recommended Amounts: CARBOHYDRATE 4kcals/gram PROTEIN 4kcals/gram FAT 9kcals/gram
Carbohydrates 4 kcals/gram Body is programmed to use glucose for energy Primary fuel source for hard exercise Faster recovery Maintains immune function Postpones fatigue
2 Main Groups of CHO: • Complex: • Natural “sugars” • Whole grains, Milk, Fruits, Vegetables • Simple: • Added “sugars” • Refined sugars added to food, Candy, Soda, Pastries, Cake, & Cookies GRAINS: • “Come Back to Earth” • Fuel for the brain & muscles • Look for the least processed form of grain • Think brown & found close to the ground! • The best choices will have >3grams of fiber per serving Carbohydrates
Too Much Carbohydrate? • Leads to health problems • Tired Feeling • Obesity • Type II Diabetes • Excess of glucose in blood • Builds resistance to insulin • Gastrointestinal Distress • Triglyceride Levels • Plaque build up in arteries • Increase Cholesterol levels • Increased risk of heart attack and stroke
Protein • 4 kcals/gram • Poor source of Energy • Used for Growth, Maintenance, & Repair • Forms enzymes, hormones, antibodies • Supports structure of muscles and cells • Made up of amino acids • 20 total amino acids • 9 essential- must be supplied by the diet • 11 non essential- body can produce
Protein • RDA for Protein = 0.8 grams/ kg of BW • Athletes can range from 0.8 – 1.5 Calculate your requirement: • Take your weight in pounds / 2.2 = wt in kg • Weight in kg x .8 = protein requirement • Example: 180lbs / 2.2 = 81.8 x .8 = 65 grams of protein How much Protein do you need?
Too Much Protein? • Excess amino acids cannot be stored in the body as protein • More protein ≠ More muscle! • Muscle strength, size, and shape comes from exercise • Excess protein (any excess calorie) is stored as fat • Too much protein can result in nutrient imbalance, kidney strain, dehydration, and excess body weight
Fats • 9 kcals/gram • Provides essential nutrients (fatty acids), vitamins and some energy • Lines and insulates the nerves of the brain and body organs • Aids in manufacturing of antibodies • Regular training improves your body’s ability to use fat as a fuel source • “Fat burns in a carbohydrate flame”
Fats Trans Saturated Unsaturated
Too Much Fat? • Leads to health problems including: • Overweight/Obesity • Diabetes • Heart Disease • Atherosclerosis • Bone Conditions • Some cancers • Stroke
CARBOHYDRATE- fuel for the brain & muscles “Come back to Earth” ________ PROTEIN- building blocks for our bodies “The Less Legs the Better” ________ FAT- healthy fats = energy density “Eat Healthy Fat” The Big Three
Table of Contents Introduction to Nutrition & Physical Activity Facts & Statistics 5 Fundamentals of Nutrition The Big Three • MRE’s • 10 Nutrition Tips to Live by • Balancing Calories • Portion Control • Sum it Up • Resources
Meals Ready to Eat (MRE) • Each MRE contains: • Entrée • Side Dish • Crackers / Bread • Spread • Dessert • Candy • Beverages • Hot Sauce / Seasoning • Totally self contained complete meal. • One MRE = One Meal
Each MRE contains an average of: • 1250 calories • 13% Protein • 36% Fat • 51% CHO • 1/3 of the Military Recommended • Daily Allowance • 24 “Menus” • 4 Vegetarian Meals • 3 MREs/day are recommended for active duty on patrols or on the front line. (3750 kcals) Meals Ready to Eat (MRE)
Table of Contents Introduction to Nutrition & Physical Activity Facts & Statistics 5 Fundamentals of Nutrition The Big Three MRE’s • 10 Nutrition Tips to Live by • Balancing Calories • Portion Control • Sum it Up • Resources
1. Come back to Earth • Choose the LEAST processed forms of food such as: • Fruits • Veggies • Whole grains • High-fiber carbohydrates • Organic • USDA approved • All-Natural • Read your ingredients!
2. Eat a Rainbow Often • Eat FRUITS & VEGETABLES with EACH MEAL • Drink fruit juice in moderation • Make sure it’s 100% juice • Whole fruits & vegetables are best • Canned/Frozen are a healthy alternatives at a lower cost • Choose a wide variety of colors for the biggest benefit • Have fun with it!
3. The Less Legs the Better Include a lean protein source with each meal >
4. Eat Health Fats Include healthy fats in your diet! Olive oil, nuts, natural nut butters, seeds, avocado, fish, flaxseed and flaxseed oil
5. Eat Breakfast Every Day Set the Tone! “Break” – “The” – “Fast” Breakfast Should Include: • Breakfast: • Increases Metabolism • Fuels the Brain • Increases Energy Levels • Don’t substitute coffee, soda and energy drinks for food or lack of sleep. • Skipping breakfast leads to eating more calories through the day and later at night. Don’t play catch up! Protein: Eggs, egg whites, ham, beans, yogurt, or low-fat milk High Fiber Carbohydrate: Whole wheat bread, high fiber cereal, oatmeal, or beans Color: Fruit in cereal, oatmeal, or yogurt / Veggies in eggs or omelets
6. Three for Three • 3 meals & 2-3 snacks • Eat smaller portions • Eat more throughout the day • You should be eating 4-6 times per day! • Aim for all 3 macronutrients • [carbs, protein, & fat] • Eat every 3 hours for optimal fueling!
7. Stay Hydrated Dehydration = Decreased Performance *Evaluate urine to monitor hydration levels Drink at least 3 liters of non-caloric beverages every day If you are thirsty, it is too late Water should be your main source of hydration Avoid drinking soda, energy drinks, and fruit drinks. Limit sweetened teas and coffee drinks with added sugar and cream Only choose sports drinks before, during, and after INTENSE exercise
7. Stay Hydrated U.S. Army Public Health Command Water Requirement by Body Weight (ounces of fluid or liters per day) 120 pounds: 60 – 120 oz, 2 – 4 liters/day 150 pounds: 75 – 150 oz, 2.5 – 5 liters/day 175 pounds: 90 – 175 oz, 3 – 6 liters/day 200 pounds: 100 – 200 oz, 3.5 – 7 liters/day 225 pounds: 115 – 225 oz, 4 – 8 liters/day 250 pounds: 125 – 200 oz, 4.5 – 9 liters/day ARMY TROOP REQUIREMENTS: • 1 quart of beverage per 1,000 calories expended Increase water consumption: • in warm temperatures • at high altitudes • when wearing heavy clothing/gear • with increased levels of physical activity (Typically 4-6 quarts/day in these conditions)
8. Don’t Waste Your Workout Pre-Workout During Workout • Gives you energy for your workout • Increase intensity of workout • Increase calories burned during exercise = weight loss • Eat ½ -2 hrs before exercise • Simple and bland carbohydrate rich meal • Handful of trail mix • Protein oatmeal + fruit • Fruit smoothie • Stay Hydrated • Water! • >1 hour: Use a drink that has electrolytes with a small amount of carbohydrate • Ex. Gatorade, Diluted fruit juice • Eat if exercise lasts longer than 60 minutes • Prevents hitting the wall • Helps maintain electrolyte balance • .5 g CHO/lb. body weight per hour • Ex. 4 cups of sports drink & banana
8. Don’t Waste Your Workout Post-Workout Recovery in 3’s • Makes up one of your 5-6 meals • Best results- immediately or up to 30 minutes after workout • Recovery snack or shake • [granola bar or fruit smoothie] • At least 5g of protein • Combine carbs & protein Re-fuel: the more intense the training, the more CHO you need! Re-build: protein needs post workout are based on body weight (handout from earlier) Re-hydrate: drink 20-24oz of fluid for each pound lost during training
8. Don’t Waste Your Workout What do you need to recover? More Examples: 20oz low-fat chocolate milk + banana Turkey and pasta salad Tuna sandwich w/baked chips Meal replacement bar + 20oz sports drink Scrambled eggs or egg whites with whole wheat toast and 6oz juice Turkey sandwich + yogurt Spaghetti and meatballs Fruit smoothie blended with yogurt or whey protein
9. Supplement Wisely FUEL FIRST, SUPPLEMENT SECOND • Add a multivitamin to daily routine if needed • Check 1st with doc or registered dietician • Choose smart • Improve performance without compromising health • Can be expensive • What is a dietary Supplement? • A product that is taken by mouth that contains a “dietary ingredient” intended to supplement the diet. • Dietary Ingredients in these products: • Vitamins, minerals, herbs, botanicals, amino acids, enzymes, organ tissues, gland tissue or secretions. • No government testing required for: • Hoodia and lead • Hydroxycut and liver damage
9. Supplement Wisely ENERGY DRINKS = BAD NEWS! • Increase Heart Rate • Increase Blood Pressure • Dehydrate the Body • Never Use when Exercising • Combination of fluid loss from sweating and the diuretic quality of the caffeine can leave the user severely dehydrated!
9. Supplement Wisely WARNING SIGNS OF QUACKERY Check Food & Drug Administration website if unsure! • Quick weight loss or muscle gain • Restriction of any one food or food group • Very low in calories (VLCD) • 800-1200 calories a day • Claims that sound too good to be true • You can eat all you want • Promises an easy solution • Breakthrough findings