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US Experience in Biofuels: Successes and R&D Challenges. Cary Bloyd EGNRET-27 Zhuhai, China 9-11 October 2006. The US Ethanol Program is an Example of Partnerships.
US Experience in Biofuels: Successes and R&D Challenges Cary Bloyd EGNRET-27 Zhuhai, China 9-11 October 2006
The US Ethanol Program is an Example of Partnerships The success of the US ethanol program is the partnership formed between are occur across multiple agencies at both the federal and state levels, the research community and the private sector • US Department of Energy • US Department of Agriculture • US Environmental Protection Agency • State biofuel programs • Industry trade associations • Private sector • Research institutions/universities
US Goals are defined in terms of fuel blending • In 2006, 4 billion gallons (260,000 bpd) • November 2006 production was 4.7 billion gallons • In 2012, 7.5 billion gallons (490,000 bpd) • US EPA has proposed increasing the 2007 target by 33 percent from 2.78 percent of all gasoline sold to 3.71 percent
The Advanced Energy Initiative Set New Targets in February 2006a • Provides for a 22% increase in funding for clean-energy technology research. • Develop advanced battery technologies that allow a plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle to have a 40-mile range operating solely on battery charge. • Foster the breakthrough technologies needed to make cellulosic ethanol cost competitive with corn-based ethanol by 2012. • Accelerate progress towards the President’s goal of enabling large numbers of Americans to choose hydrogen fuel cell vehicles by 2020. ahttp://www.whitehouse.gov/stateoftheunion/2006/energy
Ethanol and Biodiesel production are expanding rapidly 2000 2006 Under Construction Ethanol Plants 54 95 33 Production Capacity (mgy) 1749 4336 1893 Production is now being reported in bpd, which was 288,000 bpd in January 2006, an increase of 8,000 bpd over December 05 Louis Dreyfus Agriculture Industries LLC plans to build the world's largest biodiesel plant in Indiana 260,000 metric tons of soybeans will be converted to 80 million gallons of biodiesel per year
US DOE supports technology, fuel development, and science programs • The FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Program is developing more energy efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that will enable America to use less petroleum • http://www.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ • The Biomass Program develops technology for conversion of biomass (plant-derived material) to valuable fuels, chemicals, materials and power, so as to reduce dependence on foreign oil and foster growth of biorefineries • http://www.eere.energy.gov/biomass/ • The Office of Science supports fundamental research into biological systems. Recent work includes the complete DNA analysis of the black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). The Office of Science has also announced $250 million to establish and operate two new Bioenergy Research Centers. • http://www.science.doe.gov
US Department of Agriculture • The Bioenergy Program seeks to expand industrial consumption of agricultural commodities by promoting their use in production of bioenergy (ethanol and biodiesel). • USDA provides two types of Programs: Business Programs & Cooperative Services. • Business and Industry (B&I) Guaranteed Loan Program • Rural Business Opportunity Grants • Value-Added Agricultural Product Market Development Grants - Independent Producers • The FY 2005 appropriations bill approved Program funding of $100 million for FY 2005. http://www.fsa.usda.gov/daco/bio_daco.htm
Example: Rural Business Opportunity Grants • Rural Business Opportunity Grants: Designed to promote economic development in rural communities by making grants to pay the costs of providing economic planning, technical assistance, or training. Applicants must be a public body, nonprofit corporation, Indian tribe, or cooperative with members that are primarily rural residents. Applicants must have expertise in the activities proposed and be able to demonstrate that funding will result in rural economic development. A maximum of $1.5 million is available for the program, with most grants of $50,000 or less. http://www.ethanolrfa.org/leg_position_usda.shtml
The US Environmental Protection Agency • EPA promotes and expands the use of environmentally beneficial alternative fuels and vehicles by providing the states with tools, such as benefits models, State Implementation Plan Credits, and the Clean Fuels Fleet program. • Two page fact sheets available on: • Compressed natural gas • Biodiesel • Electric Vehicles • Ethanol • Fisher-Tropsch • Liquefied Natural Gas • Methanol • Propane http://www.epa.gov/otaq/consumer/fuels/altfuels/altfuels.htm
State governments have been strong supporters of biofuels • Three states have enacted mandates for E10 (Minnesota (also E20), Hawaii, and Montana) • Eight other states have legislation in progress (Washington, Colorado, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, New Mexico) • New York state has announced $20 million program for the development of a cellulosic ethanol pilot facility
The private sector is also expanding the ethanol distribution infrastructure • Ford and VeraSun Energy will establish a "Midwest Ethanol Corridor" by converting 40 existing fuel pumps in Illinois and Missouri to E85. • The project will increase the availability of E85 in the region by about a third. • GM announced that it will add 26 new E85 pumps in the greater Chicago area through a partnership with VeraSun Energy and Shell • GM has started a national advertising program called “live green, go yellow” to promote E85 • http://www.gm.com/company/onlygm/
The Renewable Energy Fuels Association produces a free monthly newsletter Best practices handbooks are also available FUEL ETHANOL Industry Guidelines, Specifications, and Procedures Dec. 2003 www.ethanolrfa.org
University and Government Research Supports Biofuels • Multiple DOE national laboratories have had long standing biofuels research programs: Argonne National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory • State agricultural universities have had continuous research programs
The GREET (Greenhouse gases,Regulated Emissions, and Energyuse in Transportation) Model • GREET includes emissions of greenhouse gases • CO2, CH4, and N2O VOC, CO, and NOx as optional GHGs • GREET estimates emissions of five criteria pollutants • VOC, CO, NOx, PM10, and Sox • Total and urban emissions separately • GREET separates energy use into • All energy sources • Fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, and coal) • The GREET model and Its documents are available at: http://greet.anl.gov; there are about 800 registered GREET users
Modeling tools have also been developed at universities • Douglas Tiffany from the University of Minnesota has developed a spreadsheet model for the economic analysis of dry mill ethanol production http://www.agmrc.org/NR/rdonlyres/4C6BD4DE-8DA0-44F6-A9AE-02320DBF99F6/0/ethanolsuccess.xls