BookⅠ Unit SevenThe Sampler The Second Two Periods Reading and Translation Designed by Shi Yuan
Reading and Translation • Review—Memorize the new words • Comprehension of the text • Chinese and English phrases • Words and expressions • Difficult sentences • Assignments
Words-web • ① lay out；② to one’s taste；③ take advantage of；④ afford；⑤break off； • ⑥out of place/in place；⑦ mistake for/long for；⑧ the last … ；⑨ hear of
Comprehension of the textQuestions • 1. How many characters were there in the story? And who were they? • Answer: There were three: the old man, the shop girl and the author. • 2. What were laid out in a row in the store during the Christmas season? • Answer: Delicious puddings.
3. What did the author in the story often wonder? • Answer: He often wondered whether people would sample puddings when they have no intention to buy any. • 4. What did the shop girl tell him when he asked the above question? • Answer: She told him that there was an old gentleman who came there to sample puddings but never bought anything.
5. Was the shop girl friendly to the old man when he turned up in the store? How do you know? • Answer: Yes, she was; she gave him a spoon and encourages him to sample the puddings. • 6. Was the old man shocked when the author offered to buy him some puddings? How do you know? • Answer: Yes, he was; he jumped back as if he had been stung.
7. Did the old man accept the author’s offer? • Answer: No, he declined it with dignity. • 8. What did the old man have in his worn little black pocketbook? • Answer: He had nothing but coins.
9. How did the author feel when he realized that because of his offer, the old man had been forced into a purchase he could not afford? • Answer: He longed for the power to unsay his tactless words, and he felt that the kindest thing he could do would be walk away. • 10. Just make a guess: In what country did this story take place? What are the words or expressions that give you the clue? • Answer: The story must have taken place in Britain; the old pays for the puddings with “shillings and pennies”.
2. Discourse Analysis Main Idea Time During the Christmas Season Characters the shop girl, the old man, the author The poor old man sampled one after another of the puddings without purchase. The author’s good intention to help made the old man very angry and hurt the old man’s dignity. Plot The author wanted to buy the old man some puddings, but the old man jumped back as if he had been stung. Then the old man purchased the puddings which he could not afford. Climax Good intentions alone are not enough to help others. We should use appropriate ways to avoid hurting others. Theme
Outline of the Story • The story describes a brief encounter of a young man with a poor elderly gentleman in a pudding shop during the Christmas season, which at least offers us three points. • The first is that there is really the case that someone, who has no intention of making a purchase, takes the advantage of the privilege. The second is that there is not always the case that a good intention will get a good result – the poor old gentleman refused the young man’s kind offering. The third is the story gives us a chance to see one aspect of life in the West.
Words and expressions • intention: n. purpose • If I've hurt your feelings, it was quite without intention. • Well-intentioned though he is, he is always laughed at by others. • Collocation: • by intention故意 • have no intention of doing ... 无意做… • with the intention of抱有…目的/打算 • with the best of intentions好心好意, 出于一片好心 • without intention无意中, 不是故意地
delicious a. • (1) tasting or smelling pleasant 美味的，可口的 • e.g. Chinese food is generally considered delicious. • Your perfume is delicious. • (2) delightful 妙的，有趣的 • e.g. I enjoyed the delicious evenings spent with your family. • Love is always delicious to the young.
certain: not named or described but taken as known • -There are certain laws about drinking and driving, you know! • -A certain Mr. Lee rang me up this morning but he had got the wrong number.
lay out: spread (something), as to view; arrange or spread out • -The new books were laid out neatly on the table. • -The scenery was laid out before the travelers when they reached the top of the hill. • Cf: • lay – laid-laying • lie – lay – lain – lying
Collective: • lay off : to dismiss (an employee), esp. temporarily because of slack business; to cease or quit; stop : • --He promised to lay off drinking. • lay in: to store away for future use: • --We laid in a supply of canned goods. • lay into: Informal. to attack physically or verbally; assail: • --He laid into the opposition with fiery words
sample: • n. a small part representing the whole样品，试样 • The nurse took a sample of my blood for tests. • Next, I’d like to show you our sample room. • vt. take and examine a part of体验，品尝 • She sampled the wine before giving it to the others. • The scientist sampled the spring water and declared it beneficial to human health.
select: • vt. choose • She was selected from many applicants. • The city was selected as the site for the coming Olympic Games. • adj. chosen • In ancient times, book knowledge was limited to the select few. • John Major became Mrs. Thatcher’s select successor.
CF: • select, choose & elect这几个词都是动词，都有“选择”之意。 • select指经过考虑后从许多同类东西中仔细认真地进行选择，往往是根据被选择对象的优劣进行选择。 • choose是最普通的词语，指运用自己的判断能力按照被选对象的正确与否，合适与否进行选择，往往含有一种在客观条件下进行选择的意思。 • elect通常只用选票或其他方法选中某人担任某一职务。
to one’s taste: for one’s liking or preference • --Is popular music always to everyone’s taste? • --This kind of soft drink is not to my taste.
purchase: • n. buying • That dress you bought yesterday is a good purchase. • He gave his son some money for the purchase of his school books. • vt. buy • He is intending to purchase a new car on installments. • Women tend to have stronger purchasing power than men do. • purchasing power 购买力
take advantage of: make use of (sth. or sb.) for one’s own benefit • We’ve decided to take full advantage of the week-long holiday to visit some interesting places in southeast countries. • They often take advantage of his kindness and borrow money from him and never return it.
Collocation: • at an advantage有利地 • be of advantage to对…有利 • gain / get / have / win an (the) advantage over (of) 胜过, 优于 • give sb. an advantage (over) 使某人处于有利地位 • have the advantage of 比…强, 胜过 • take advantage of / make one's advantage of乘机利用
privilege: n. special right given to a person • It is my great privilege to have dinner with you. • Diplomats enjoy a lot of privilege in foreign countries. • Collocation: • privilege sb from 除免去某人的…… • privilege him from a tax 特免他的纳税
suspect: • vt. guess or suppose; feel doubt about • He said he’d be here at eleven o’clock, but I suspect he will be late. • The police suspected him of robbery / suspected that he was a robber. • n. sb. suspected of wrongdoing • The police cannot arrest any suspect without firm evidence. • Pattern: • suspect sb. of doing sth.怀疑某人做过某事 • suspect sb. of sth. • suspect sb. to be怀疑某人是……
CF: • suspect & doubt这两个词都是动词，都有“怀疑”、“不相信”之意。 • suspect意思是“怀疑”、“猜想”、“觉得不可靠”，指没有足够的证据或毫无证据而相信，或模糊地觉得某事已经存在或将要发生，但由于证据或理由不足而不能做出断定。如果指不相信某事，有时可与doubt替换。“怀疑。。。。是” • doubt意思是“怀疑”、“不相信”，常带“否定”意味，指怀疑某种事物的存在或是否会发生，也指怀疑某人说的话或某种说法是否可靠。“怀疑。。。。不是”
and what’s more: also, and more importantly, seriously, etc. • Playing games can relieve people totally from the pressure of work, and what’s more, it can teach rules of life as well. • He managed to finish the task within limited time, and what’s more, the task is well-done.
More usages of “more” • 1）. 当more作many的比较级用时，前面可以用一个表示程度的状语来修饰。a lot of more • 2）. 当more代替或修饰可数名词复数时，前面可用a few, many或数字来修饰。a few more apples or three more books • 3）. 如more后接的是不可数名词，副词或形容词时，more前面可用much, rather, a little, a great deal 来修饰。rather more slowly or much more serious
all right: certainly; beyond doubt • She is pretty all right, but I don’t like her. • It’s time to leave, all right, but the bus hasn’t come.
afford: v. have enough time, means, time, etc. for; be able to spare (often used with can, be able to, could) • No one can afford to waste so much time attending the meeting. • I wish I could afford two hours for the party.
NB: • 1. 在否定结构中时， 表示“经不起”（发生某事，做某事），含尽力避免其发生做某事的意思。 • I can’t afford to neglect my father’s scolding. • 2. 表示有能力做某事时，通常不用被动语态。 • Cars are so expensive that only rich people can afford to buy them. • 不能说：Cars are so expensive that they can be afforded only by the rich people.
limp • adj. 无力的，没有精神的；柔软的 • vi. 一瘸一拐地 • The flowers looked limp in the heat. • The injury left him a permanent limp. • adj. lame 跛的，瘸的 • n. cripple跛子，瘸子 • v. cripple 使跛 • vi. limp 跛行，一瘸一拐地走 • The cripple who is lame in the left leg is limping on the way home.
very: adj. used to emphasize a noun (only before noun and often used with the, this, my, your) • It was on this very spot, the manager was shot. • You are the very man I’m looking for.
break off • i). stop working for a short time • -Let’s break off work and have a cup of tea. • -You can not break off his teaching in class. • ii). stop speaking • -Jim broke off telling the story to answer the telephone. • -“How dare you __” he suddenly broke off when the teacher came in.
occasion 偶尔的，间或发生的，特殊场合的 • she likes an occasional glass of wine. • on occasion 偶尔 • occasionally: • We go for walks in the fields occasionally.
油腻的食物 交通拥挤 • heavy: • I do not like heavy food. • Traffic is heavy around here. • He said goodbye to his son with a heavy heart. • heavy sky • heavy sea • a heavy smoker • heavy taxes; • a heavy fine; • heavy casualties; • heavy losses; • heavy rain • heavy humor 心情悲伤 阴沉的天空 波涛汹涌的大海 烟瘾大的人 重税 重罚 重大的人员伤亡 重大的损失 大雨 索然无味的幽默
eventually: finally • e.g. • – His dreams have eventually come true. • – The Government apologized to the native Indians eventually.
eventuallyadv. 最终，终于 • When it was eventually brought to the shore, it was found to be over thirteen feet long. • CF: • at last 通常表示在久久等待以后终于发生。 • At last the spring came after a long severe winter. • eventually 的意思是作为结果而终于发生。 • If the population goes on increasing at the present rate, there will eventually not be enough resources left on earth to sustain human life.
positive a. • (1) sure or certain 有把握的，确信的 • e.g. I am positive that it was Joan who screamed for help just now. • Can you be positive about what you heard? • (2) constructive 积极的，建设性的 • e.g. The old professor gave them some positive suggestion on what to do next. • (3) (in math) greater than zero; (of electricity) caused by deficiency of electrons 正的；阳性的 • e.g. “+” is the positive sign. You must have confused the positive pole with the negative pole.
positive 肯定的，正面的，积极的，阳（电），正（数） • negative 否定的，反面的，消极的，阴（电），负（数）
cheat • v. act in a dishonest way to win an advantage or profit • Those students who cheat on / in the exam will be punished. • The elderly woman was cheated into buying a house that did not exist. • The elderly woman was cheated out of her fortune. • n. an action of deception or sb. that deceives • Some tax cheats have been heavily fined. • Cheats will be disclosed in the long run.
CF: • cheat & deceive 这两个动词均有“欺骗”之意。 • cheat普通用词，指用蒙蔽他人的手段取得所需之物，尤多指在赢利的买卖中欺骗人。 • He always cheat at cards; I never play with him. 他打牌时总是作弊；我从不同他一起打牌。 • deceive指采用歪曲真相隐瞒事实的手法给人造成假相，使人上当受骗。此外，该词在被动语态中和后借反身动词的情况下，不一定指欺骗，往往指认识上的错误。 • He deceived me under the mask of friendship. 他假托友谊来欺骗我。 • You deceived yourself as to the course you chose. 你对自己所采取的方针认识不正确。 • My secretary first deceived me into believing in him, and then cheated me out of all my shares in the company.我的秘书先是骗取了我对他的信任，然后骗取了我在公司的全部股份。
come down in the world: lose a place of respect or honor; become lower as in rank or fortune • The stranger plainly had come down a long way in the world. • Poor old George has come down in the world since his business failed.
amidst: in the middle of; among • A church stands amidst trees. • He was brave amidst all dangers. • CF： • among: (followed by a plural noun or pronoun) means “surrounded by” or “ in relation to many things” • E.g. “among friends”, “living among the Indians” • amidst: means “surrounded by either separate objects or an undifferentiated mass or quantity” • E.g. – A church stands amidst skyscrapers.
crowd: • n. large group of people together • Crowds gather in front of the stock exchange every weekday. • Upon his arrival, the President was cheered by welcoming crowds. • v. come together in a crowd • People crowded around the tourist guide for more interesting stories. • One can hardly breathe in such a crowded room.
prosperous: adj. rich; successful • Upon liberation in 1949, many overseas Chinese came back to build a prosperous China. • We should hold a party for the prosperous business this year.
Prosperityn. 兴旺，繁荣，成功，富足 • I wish you all prosperity.祝你万事顺利。 • Diversity leads to prosperity. 穷则变，变则通。 • In prosperity our friends know us; in adversity, we know our friends. (Collins) 在顺境中，朋友结识了我们，在逆境中，我们认识了朋友。
figure: n. • 1) human form • What a fine figure of a man! • I saw a familiar figure ahead of me in the crowded subway station. • 2) number • People were surprised to find that the beggar had a bank account of six figures. • Write the amount in words and in figures. 用文字和数字写下这笔钱数。 • 3) drawing to illustrate sth. • Her job is to draw figures for magazine articles.
figure v. • (1) imagine 想象(2) consider; believe 认为，想 • figure out: to calculate; come to understand or discover by thinking 计算出；想出；理解；弄清；明白
in/out of place: suitable/unsuitable; proper/improper • -I think an expression of thanks to our host would be in place. • -The old man felt out of place among the foreigners.
do a favor for sb: do sth for sb • --Could you do me a favor by shutting the window? • --He asked me to do him the favor of shutting the window.