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Shubha Ghosh Professor of Law SMU Dedman School of Law. RACE, MARKETS & PATENTS. Should racial categories be used in patent law?. Social Context of Invention and Patent Law Document patents Analysis Theories of patent law Incentive Market Cultural Theories of race Liberal Critical.

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shubha ghosh professor of law smu dedman school of law
Shubha Ghosh

Professor of Law

SMU Dedman School of Law

RACE, MARKETS & PATENTS

Ghosh--Race & Patent Law Project

should racial categories be used in patent law
Should racial categories be used in patent law?
  • Social Context of Invention and Patent Law
  • Document patents
  • Analysis
    • Theories of patent law
      • Incentive
      • Market
      • Cultural
    • Theories of race
      • Liberal
      • Critical

Ghosh--Race & Patent Law Project

motivation
MOTIVATION
  • In 2005, the Food and Drug Administration approved Bidil, a drug for hypertension, specifically for the African-American population.
    • Controversy over decision
  • The drug was also granted a patent in 2002.
    • The patent issues have been less thoroughly analyzed…

Ghosh--Race & Patent Law Project

racial terms in patents
Racial Terms in Patents
  • “African-American” in specifications or claims: 489 patents from July 1989 to November 2006.
  • “Negro” in specifications or claims: over 700 patents from April 1842 to July 2006.

Ghosh--Race & Patent Law Project

breakdown of patents by types
Breakdown of patents by types
  • Epidemiological: over 500 from 1989 to 2006.
  • Hair: 70 patents from 1904 to 2006.
  • Skin color: 25 patents from 1941 to 2004.
  • Toys: 63 patents from 1863 to 2004.
  • Sorting Identities and Names: 7 from 1920 to 2005.
  • Miscellaneous: 51 from 1842 to 2006.

Ghosh--Race & Patent Law Project

selected types of patents over time
Selected Types of Patents Over Time
  • Hair
    • Before 1900: 0
    • 1900-1950: 6
    • 1950-2000: 36
    • 2000-: 28
  • Skin Color
    • Before 1940:0
    • 1940-1950: 1
    • 1950-2000: 13
    • 2000-: 11
  • Toys
    • Before 1900: 13
    • 1900-1950: 23
    • 1950-2000: 12
    • 2000-: 15
  • Sorting Identities and Names
    • Before 1920: 0
    • 1920-1950: 2
    • 1950-2000: 2
    • 2000-: 3

Ghosh--Race & Patent Law Project

theories of ip
Theories of IP
  • Incentive Theory
    • Wealth maximization
  • Market Theory
    • Commercialization
  • Cultural Theory
    • Civil Society

Ghosh--Race & Patent Law Project

theories of race
Theories of Race
  • Liberal Theories
    • Assimilation
    • Economic theories (Loury)
    • Pluralism (Ford)
  • Critical Theories
    • Accommodation and empowerment
    • Anti-subordination
    • Conversion, Passing, and Covering (Yoshino)

Ghosh--Race & Patent Law Project

typology of normative arguments
Typology of Normative Arguments

Ghosh--Race & Patent Law Project

critique of current arguments
Critique of Current Arguments
  • NAACP
  • Sullivan & Lilliquist
  • Kahn

Ghosh--Race & Patent Law Project

critical cultural theories of patent law
Critical Cultural Theories of Patent Law
  • Justification
    • Cultural theories of patent subsume other two
    • Critical theories of race, at least in moderate form, balances assimilation and accommodation
  • Some proposals
    • Racial category in specification but not in claim.
    • Racial category irrelevant for novelty and nonobviousness.
    • Racial category appropriate in beneficial utility analysis.

Ghosh--Race & Patent Law Project

what does all this mean
What Does All This Mean?
  • Pervasiveness of racial categories
  • Social context of intellectual property
  • Intellectual property rules and social policy

Ghosh--Race & Patent Law Project