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  1. Regardless of their theoretical orientation, therapists agree that self-awareness isthe key to overcoming psychological. • True • False

  2. Most people who suffer psychological problems become worse without therapy. • True • False

  3. The most effective treatment for alcohol dependence is to associate alcoholicdrinks with a nausea-producing drug. • True • False

  4. Daily exposure to bright light successfully counteracts winter depression. • True • False

  5. The various therapies are so different that it is impossible to find anycommonalities. • True • False

  6. The training and experience of the therapist are crucial factors in determiningtherapeutic success. • True • False

  7. The use of drugs has liberated hundreds of thousands of people with severepsychological disorders from hospital confinement. • True • False

  8. Many people have found relief from bipolar mood swings with a daily dose of acheap salt. • True • False

  9. Electroconvulsive therapy is no longer used in the treatment of psychologicaldisorders. • True • False

  10. Approaches to Psychology and Treatment

  11. Behavioral Psychoanalytical Medical Cognitive Humanistic Biopsychological

  12. Behavioral = Conditioning, + - reinforcement • Psychoanalytical = unconscious mind, childhood • Medical = Physical illness, drugs, surgery, etc. • Cognitive = Thinking, beliefs, memory, or language • Humanistic = Self-actualization and unique potential • Biopsychological – genes, brain abnormalities, and neurotransmitters

  13. Treatment of Psychological Disorders • Opening Activity: Imagine that a good friend of yours has approached you about a problem he or she has developed recently. This friend describes several symptoms, including increased feelings of depression, crying spells, loss of interest in usual activities, and changes in sleep and eating patterns. Let’s assume you have asked enough questions to allow you to conclude that this person is clinically depressed. • Your task is to assume the role of therapist and develop some possible interventions and therapies for your friend based on what you have learned this year. List your three ideas in your notebook.

  14. Treatment of Psychological Disorders • Share your three ideas with your group.

  15. Treatment of Psychological Disorders • Psychological Therapy • Why do people enter therapy? • Patient versus client distinction • What are some common obstacle to entering therapy? • Economic obstacles • Ethnic background • Gender • Major in college

  16. Treatment of Psychological Disorders • Components of Therapy • A relationship built on trust • accurate diagnosis of the problem • determining the problem's cause • determining the likelihood of improvement • carrying out treatment

  17. Treatment of Psychological Disorders • Who does therapy? • Counseling psychologist = M.A.,M.S. or higher • Clinical psychologist = Ph.D or Psy.D • Psychoanalyst = Ph.D • Psychiatrist = M.D. • Paraprofessionals = Some college + certificate

  18. Types of Therapists

  19. Paraprofessionals • Clinical psychologist • Psychoanalyst • Counseling psychologist • Psychiatrist

  20. Treatment of Psychological Disorders • Who does therapy? • Counseling psychologist = M.A.,M.S. or higher • Clinical psychologist = Ph.D or Psy.D • Psychoanalyst = Ph.D • Psychiatrist = M.D. • Paraprofessionals = Some college + certificate Which type of therapist would most interest you as a career? Give two reasons to justify your answer.

  21. Treatment of Psychological Disorders • Modern Approaches to Therapy • Psychological therapies • Insight therapies • Behavior therapies • Biomedical therapies

  22. Treatment of Psychological Disorders • The History of Therapy

  23. Treatment of Psychological Disorders • The History of Therapy

  24. Checking for Understanding • List three things you learned today in your notebook.

  25. Treatment of Psychological Disorders • The New Asylums

  26. Treatment of Psychological Disorders • Group Presentations: • Freudian Psychoanalysis • Neo-Freudian Psychodynamic Therapies • Humanistic Therapies • Cognitive Therapies • Group Therapies • Classical Conditioning Therapies • Operant Conditioning Therapies • Participant Modeling • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

  27. Treatment of Psychological Disorders • Group Presentations: • Freudian Psychoanalysis • Neo-Freudian Psychodynamic Therapies • Humanistic Therapies • Cognitive Therapies • Group Therapies • Classical Conditioning Therapies • Operant Conditioning Therapies • Participant Modeling • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

  28. Treatment of Psychological Disorders • Freudian psychoanalysis • Unresolved childhood traumas and inner conflicts • Free association • Transference

  29. Treatment of Psychological Disorders • Humanistic therapies • Self-esteem • Importance of empathy • Active listening • Clients heal themselves • Carl Rogers • Positive self-regard • Client-centered therapy • Unconditional positive regard

  30. Treatment of Psychological Disorders • Empathy Activity • It’s really hard for you to get started talking. • Decision making just seems impossible to you. • You want marriage, but it doesn’t seem to you to be much of a possibility. • You feel yourself brimming over with feelings reminiscent of your childhood. • Being very nice to children has somehow had meaning for you.

  31. Treatment of Psychological Disorders • Cognitive therapies • Challenge unrealistic, unjustified assumptions and beliefs • Aaron Beck and depression • Negative self-talk

  32. Cognitive Therapies

  33. ________ focuses on communicating and verbalizing emotions and motives to understand one’s problems. • Behavioral therapy • Cognitive therapy • Insight therapy • Rational-emotive therapy • Humanistic therapy

  34. A support group would be most likely to be useful in… • Managing crises such as divorce or the death of a child • Treating addictions such as alchohol or gambling • Coping with mental and physical disorders • Helping relatives or friends of addicts cope with associated stresses. • All of the above are correct

  35. The process of __________ refers to the situation in which a patient's feelings for their therapists reflect relationship with their parents. • Catharsis • Transference • Free association • Insight therapy • Systematic Desensitization

  36. ___________ therapies are focused on the client's self-concept, values, and needs. • Social • Systematic • Behavioral • Humanistic • Biomedical

  37. Matt is seeking help from Dr. Blazer. Dr. Blazer’s therapy for Matt helps to bring unconscious conflicts to conscious awareness so that Matt gains insight into his thoughts and behaviors. Dr. Blazer is practicing _________ therapy. • Biomedical • RET • Psychoanalytic • Group • Cognitive-Behavioral

  38. An advantage of ____________ is that such therapy reassures people they are not alone in having a specific problem. • Psychoanalysis • Self-therapy • ECT • Token economies • Group therapy

  39. The _______ approach to therapy would be most useful in aiding a person to change her belief that her life will never get better. • Biomedical • Cognitive • Psychoanalytic • Contingency management • Aversion

  40. According to humanistic therapy, who has the ability to heal clients? • Loving friends • A good therapist • Drug therapy • Themselves • Clients’ close family members

  41. Treatment of Psychological Disorders • Behavioral therapies • Normal and abnormal behaviors are learned • Changing the patients responses • Often focus on treating bad habits, phobias, and anxiety

  42. Treatment of Psychological Disorders • Systematic desensitization therapy Developed anxiety hierarchy

  43. Treatment of Psychological Disorders • Systematic desensitization therapy Developed anxiety hierarchy Practice Relaxation Associate relaxation wht anxiety

  44. Treatment of Psychological Disorders • Aversion therapy • Bad habits (i.e. nail biting) • Smoking and drinking

  45. Treatment of Psychological Disorders • Operant conditioning therapies • Contingency management • Token economy

  46. Treatment of Psychological Disorders • Observation-learning therapy • Participant modeling • Symbolic modeling

  47. Treatment of Psychological Disorders • Cognitive-behavioral therapy • Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) • Albert Ellis • Challenging the “shoulds” and “oughts” • “I should always succeed” • “I should always receive approval” • “I ought to be always treated fairly” • “I ought to exercise every day”

  48. Treatment of Psychological Disorders • Review Activity – Vocabulary • Participant modeling • Token economy • Systematic desensitization • Aversion therapy • Contingency management