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SPORT SCIENCE
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  1. SPORT SCIENCE Sporiš Goran, PhD. http://kif.hr/predmet/mki http://www.science4performance.com/

  2. Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science Introduction • Science of Human Movement • Interdisciplinary Science • Multiple Applications

  3. Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science Emergence of a Scientific Discipline • Scientific discipline has central focus • Merging disciplines create new ones • More advances with combined research • Common interests are sometimes the cause

  4. Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science Exercise Science and Related Discipline • Multiple parent disciplines including: • Physics • Chemistry • Physiology/Anatomy • Medicine

  5. Creation and growth of a new “discipline” or an “interdisciplinary” area of study occurs as a result of the interaction of previous work and the growth of related disciplines – this interaction can be noted from a historical perspective

  6. The scope of Exercise and Sports Science –three primary areas • Psychology: deals with behavioral aspects of exercise and sport including learning aspects • Physiology: How physiologic systems respond and adapt to human movement • Biomechanics: Study of physical/mechanical principles that underlie human motion

  7. Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science Exercise and Sports Science— “New” Interdisciplinary Sciences Characteristics of Science • A “science” needs objectivity and evidence • Need to distinguish between anecdotal and scientific evidence

  8. Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science • In search of Truth in Science(and Advertising) • Testimonial approach – often incorrect assumptions • Tenacity - Propaganda • Knowledge of authority • Rationalistic method – may lead to right or wrong hypothesis • Scientific method can alleviate inappropriate conclusions

  9. Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science The Scientific Method • Goal is discovering what is true – science is not a philosophical debate • Basic tenet – truth is out there and it can be measured • Questions lead to research • Observation: Phenomenon to be explained • Hypothesis: Logical explanations • Experiment: Scientific study to verify hypotheses • The statistical approach • Mathematical tool to understand evidence

  10. The Research Continuum: a generalization Basic Applied performance mechanisms Translational Sports Scientists Exercise Scientists

  11. Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science Basic Versus Applied Research • Basic Research • To acquire new knowledge • Knowledge has to be developed before it can be applied • Translational Research: bridging the gap between basic and applied – “assigns” mechanisms to applied findings • Applied Research • Obvious applications (sport – health) • Answers very specific research question

  12. Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science Animal Research in Exercise and Sports Science • Many advances obtained through research on animals • Animals have also benefited • Often combined with human research • Goal is to enhance knowledge of Exercise and Sports Science

  13. Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science The Research Continuum • Questions may lead to other areas of science • Need both basic, translational and applied research • Maximum usefulness when adjacent levels understand and communicate issues of other levels

  14. Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science Movement at Every Level • Performance continuum: Individuals at different levels • Three categories • Subnormal • Normal • Supernormal • Studying all three categories yields better understanding of Exercise Science

  15. Professional and Interest Group Organizations Associated with Exercise and Sports Sciences (Examples) American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) European College of Sports Medicine (ECSM) International Society of Biomechanics in Sports (ISBS) National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) United Kingdom Strength and Conditioning Association (UKSCA)

  16. Sports Science – What is it?

  17. EXERCISE SCIENCE SPORTS SCIENCE MECHANISMS ADULT FITNESS/ MEDICAL ASPECTS PAEDIATRIC FACTORS GERIATRIC FACTORS ERGONOMICS NUTRITION PERFORMANCE

  18. Biology: interdisciplinary study of life

  19. EXERCISE SCIENCE: GENERAL TERM - • study of biological responses and adaptations to exercise and training • depends upon the disciplines of biomechanics, physiology, psychology, sociology, mechanical, electrical, and computer engineering • includes various specialities

  20. SPORT SCIENCE: • enhancement of sport performance and sport equipment through the application of scientific methods and principles

  21. EXERCISE SCIENTISTS: • - uses exercise or training to understand biology • SPORT SCIENTISTS: • - uses biology to understand sport • function to bridge the gap between science and sport

  22. To be a better sport scientist(s): 1. be a very good scientist 2. be interested in the sport(s) and the development of elite performance 3. knowledge of sport(s) – personal interest 4. knowledge of training practices and outcomes 5. be willing to train like they do ? – better understand the sport 6. regular discussions with athletes and coaches 7. understand the politics 8. provoke thought -challenge Become part of the sport.

  23. SPORTS SCIENCE:BASIC FUNCTIONS 1. EDUCATION 2. SPORTS TESTING AND FEEDBACK 3. RESEARCH

  24. EDUCATION 1. coach (coaching the coach)/students 2. athlete 3. other sports scientists – mentor junior scientists

  25. SPORTS TESTING AND FEEDBACK • INTEGRATED APPROACH • PICK THE BEST TESTS - BUT!!! • - relatively simple test - good reliability • - insure fast and reliable feedback for coaches and athletes • - make sure results are comprehensible and usable • ONGOING RE-EXAMINATION OF TESTING SERVICE

  26. RESEARCH • a diligent and systematic enquiry or investigation in order to discover facts or principles • to investigate carefully • SEARCH FOR TRUTH AND CLARITY • CURRENTLY - WITHOUT RESEARCH – SPORT IS RARELY PUSHED AHEAD

  27. RESEARCH AND SPORT SCIENCE 1. Practical 2. How can it be applied – not always apparent to the coach/athlete 3. Performance oriented - coach - sport scientists interaction - results should be reported ASAP - often carried out within the sports testing programme

  28. DEVELOP INNOVATIVE TESTING-RESEARCH PROGRAMMES Example: 1. get the coaches involved in collecting data - sport testing - research - talent ID 2. get NGB sport science committees involved in collecting data 3. use on-line services (MONITORING)

  29. A NECESSITY: INTEGRATED • PROGRAMME PLANNING • Why should coaches be interested in Sport Science? • – a good coach does not simply imitate but innovates • - Art and Science • IDEALLY-SPORT SCIENCE , NGB’S AND COACHES WORK TOGETHER TO FORMULATE A TRAINING/TESTING PROGRAMME

  30. THE IDEAL: DELIVERING SPORT SCIENCE TO THE ELITE ATHLETE AND COACHES NGB COACH/ATHLETE USOC SPORT SCIENCE DATA COLLECTION NGB SS COMMITTEE

  31. TESTING/RESEARCH/PROGRAMME PLANNING: TWO IMPORTANT CONCEPTS

  32. EXERCISE CONTINUUM STRENGTH EXERCISE POWER EXERCISE ENDURANCE EXERCISE ? STRENGTH TRAINING POWER TRAINING ENDURANCE TRAINING

  33. RECOVERY RECOVERY RECOVERY

  34. Foundations of Exercise Science Summary Points • Exercise Science and Sports Science are new fields of study formed by merging other disciplines • Major areas of concentration include: physiology, biomechanics and psychology • Anecdotal evidence can be presented through: testimonial approach, tenacity, knowledge of authority, and rationalistic method

  35. Foundations of Exercise Science Summary Points(cont.) • Scientific method uses : controlled observation, hypothesis, and experimentation • Basic research lays foundation for Applied and “Translational” research, which allows for improvements to specific areas of Exercise and Sports Science

  36. THE END