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Sport, Exercise and Health Science. Option A: Optimizing Physiological Performance . Sub-Units. A.1- Training Types of training, Effects, Periodization A.2- Environmental Factors and Physical Performance Hot and Cold Environments and the Bodies Resppnse

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Sport exercise and health science

Sport, Exercise and Health Science

Option A: Optimizing Physiological Performance

Sub units

  • A.1- Training

    • Types of training, Effects, Periodization

  • A.2- Environmental Factors and Physical Performance

    • Hot and Cold Environments and the Bodies Resppnse

  • A.3- Non-Nutritional Ergogenic Aids

    • PED’s


  • Training is performing exercise in an organized manner on a regular basis with a specific goal in mind


  • Overtraining is when an athlete attempts to do more training than he or she is physically and/or mentally tolerate

    • Overtraining results in a number of symptoms that are highly individualized


  • Pushing the body beyond its limits for a short period of time to stimulate a training response

    • Sometimes referred to as transient over-training

  • Some studies have shown improvements to training when sufficient recovery is allowed to occur


  • Not providing the body with enough stimulation for performance to improve by training

    • Not training often enough or with too small of an intensity to see desired changes

Overreaching extended
Overreaching Extended

  • Using the computers research further the idea of overreaching

    • When is it benificial? How must it me setup

    • What are the limitations/downfalls

    • How does it work?

Assignment 7 1 types of training
Assignment 7.1- Types of Training

  • In groups of three you will research and take notes on one type of training method. Each group needs to create the following

    • One page handout on your training method describing method, benefits, limitations, variances, and where best used.

      • Include diagrams in your handout

    • A plan to run the class through a short demonstration of your particular method (8-10 minute demo)

      Due: Friday Sept. 6th

Flexibility training
Flexibility Training

  • Systematic stretching of muscles and connective tissue

    • Improve range of motion

      • Done Using a number of different Forms

        • Static Stretching

        • Active Stretching

        • Dynamic Stretching

        • Ballistic Stretching

        • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)

Strength and resistance training
Strength and Resistance Training

  • Resistance against muscle contraction to increase size, strength, and power of skeletal muscle

    • Resistance can be gravity, body weight , rubber bands, weight machines, free weights

  • Benefits-

    • improved strength of muscle, tendons and ligaments, improved joint strength, injury reduction, improved neuromuscular and cardiovascular function

Circuit training
Circuit Training

  • Combines strength and resistance training with aerobic cardiovascular exercise

    • Exercises completed in a set amount of time or set number of reps

    • Each exercise followed by only a short recovery

Interval training
Interval Training

  • Involves bouts of high/maximal intensity work interspersed with low intensity recovery exercise

    • Used with many different cardiovascular exercise

Plyometrics training
Plyometrics Training

  • Made up of extremely fast, short, powerful movements

    • Used to increase speed and force of muscle contractions

    • Used mainly in activities that require explosive and forceful moves

  • Involve rapid stretching of a muscle followed by a forceful shortening of the same muscle

Continuous training
Continuous Training

  • Involves periods of exercise completed without rest

    • Intensity of the exercise will usually determine the length of the session

    • Completed at minimum threshold intensity to ensure aerobic adaptations

Fartlek training
Fartlek Training

  • Fartlek is Swedish for “Speed Play”

    • Involves a combination of interval and continuous training

      • Is not regulated by durations, intensities or rest periods but by how an athlete feels

Cross training

  • Involves using different training techniques with the goal of improving overall performance

    • Make use of some or all training methods


  • Overtraining- an unexplained decrease in performance and physiological performance following overly intense training

    • Can last from weeks, to months to years

    • Research has shown both psychological and physiological causes

  • Cannot be remedied with reduced training, rest or proper diet.

Overtraining syndrome
Overtraining Syndrome

  • Symptoms of overtraining usually referred to as the overtraining syndrome

    • Symptoms usually highly individualized and tough to diagnose

Overtraining syndrome symptoms
Overtraining Syndrome Symptoms

  • Muscle strength, coordination and exercise capacity

  • Change in appetite

  • Body weight loss

  • Sleep disturbances

  • Irritability, restlessness, excitability, anxiousness

  • Loss of motivation and vigor

  • Lack of mental concentration

  • Feeling of depression

  • Lack of appreciation of things

    • Sources: Kenney, L, et al. Physiology of Sport and Exercise (5thed)

Video clip triathlete
Video Clip- Triathlete

Causes of overtraining
Causes of Overtraining

  • Usually a complex combination of emotional and physiological factors

    • Emotional- demands of competition, desire to win, fear of failure, unattainable goals

    • Emotional Factors can lead to the decrease in enthusiasm

  • Some studies (Armstrong & VanHeest) discuss large number of similarities between clinical depression and overtraining

Autonomic nervous system responses
Autonomic Nervous System Responses

  • Changes can occur to functions of both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems

    • Sympathetic- increased resting HR, increased BP, loss of appetite, decreased body mass, sleep disturbances, emotional stability

      • Associated more with High Intensity Resistance Training

    • Parasympathetic- early onset fatigue, decreased resting HR, Rapid HR recovery after exercise, decreased resting BP

      • Associated more with endurance athletes

Hormonal responses to overtraining
Hormonal Responses to Overtraining

  • Some studies have identified hormonal responses to overtraining including:

    • Decrease in testosterone and increase in cortisol

    • Higher blood concentrations of urea (breakdown of protein)

  • Many hormonal changes are also evident during high level training and overreaching and cannot be used to identify an overtrained athlete

Immunity and overtraining
Immunity and Overtraining

  • One of most serious symptoms found in overtraining is a decrease in the bodies immune system to fight off infection

    • Decrease in lymphocytes and antibodies

  • Some studies have shown intense exercise during infection can effect the bodies ability to fight it off.

Predicting the overtraining syndrome
Predicting the Overtraining Syndrome

  • Overtraining can be very difficult to catch early

    • Most of the symptoms are not seen until athlete has already been pushed too far.

  • Can monitor individuals HR during fixed cardio activity

    • HR higher in overtrained state than in normal training state

What to do
What to Do?

  • As a coach you have noticed that one of your athletes is showing signs of overtraining. Develop a plan to help this athlete overcome these symptoms

    • What would your initial move be?

    • Develop a long term plan (relate to how it helps with overtraining symptoms)

    • What signs might you look for before you allow that athlete to start training at a higher level.


  • One Training Program that looks to utilize overreaching while avoiding overtraining

  • Works in a cyclical load

    • Allows individuals to vary intensity, frequency and duration in a structured plan

    • Built on the idea of developing in stages

Periodization stages
Periodization Stages

  • If completed during one year we call it a single periodized year

  • Stages:

    • Preparatory Period

    • Competition Period

    • Transition Period

Transition post season
Transition (Post Season)

  • Main goal of phase is to allow athletes to recover from their season

    • Need to recover both physically and mentally

    • Should require some type of exercise

      • Maintain gains made throughout the year

      • Encourage different type of activities in novel environments

  • Transition Phase usually lasts between 3-4 weeks

Preparation pre season
Preparation (Pre-Season)

  • Goal is to prepare the body for the upcoming season both physically and mentally

  • Bompa (1999) recommends breaking into two phases

    • General Preparatory Phase- develop the athletes basic conditioning

    • Specific Preparatory Phase- Develop sport specific requirements the athlete will need for their season

Competition phase
Competition Phase

  • Goal is to maintain fitness and technique, while improving tactical approaches

    • Work on sport specific skills

  • Do not want to work at a level that would be detrimental to ones in season performance

Periodization stages1
Periodization Stages

  • Three periodization stages are further broken down into the following:

    • Macrocycle- “birds eye” view of the entire year, includes all the years phases

    • Mesocycle- a specific block of training. Each phase could contain a number of mesocycles

      • Mesocycles are made up of microcycles

    • Microcycle-weekly schedule of all training for a given week

      • Work towards the athletes specific training goal in a particular phase

Planning periodization
Planning Periodization

  • Working in small groups develop and describe a periodization schedule for a sport you select

    • Include the following

      • Choose a sport and a specific level

      • Breakdown the Macrocycle into the three phases (include months for each cycle)

      • Describe specifically what you would work on during each of the phases and how you would work on it (can work on more than only one thing in each phase)

      • Choose one phase and develop a full weeks microcycle. Describe specific activities, durations and intensities

    • Be prepared to share your plan and justify your periodization plan based on your particular sport

Extension assignment
Extension Assignment

  • Course Companion- Self Study Questions pg. 173

    • Complete the following questions

      • #4 & #6

    • Data Based Question pg. 174

      • Complete Questions 1-4