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The End of the Empire

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  1. The End of the Empire The Fall of Napoleon I

  2. The Fall • In 1812, Napoleon decided to invade Russia. Napoleon assembled an army of over 500,000 soldiers, and in May 1812, he led this Grand Army into Russia. • During the retreat, the bitterly cold Russian winter turned the French victory into a disastrous defeat. Thousands of Napoleon’s soldiers starved or froze to death. The Russian army attacked the stragglers. Fewer than 100,000 escaped from Russia

  3. The Fall Continued • Although Napoleon had gained absolute power for himself he still faced many enemies outside of France • Prussia • Russia • Sweden • Austria • Britain

  4. A powerful alliance made up of Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia pounced on the weakened French army as it limped out of Russia. Napoleon rushed home to raise a new army, but his efforts failed. In March 1814, the allies captured Paris. Napoleon abdicated and went into exile on the island of Elba, off the coast of Italy.

  5. The Napoleonic Wars • In 1807 Russia, Austria, and Sweden formed an alliance against France and went to war • Prussia joined the war a year later • Napoleons armies rolled over the armies of the alliance • All of the members of the alliance were forced to seek peace and give up land to France

  6. The Napoleonic Wars • Some of these lands were added to France but others were ruled by Napoleon’s relatives and loyal generals • Napoleon spread some of the ideas of the revolution • He also extended his own power • The people out side of France soon grew to hate Napoleon

  7. The Napoleonic Wars • The one enemy France could not defeat was Britain • At the battle of Trafalgar the French fleet was sunk by a British fleet commanded by Lord Admiral Nelson • As an invasion of Britain would prove impossible Napoleon decided to attack Britain economically

  8. The Continental System • The continental system made trade with Britain forbidden for any country under French rule or allied with France • This plan was nearly impossible to enforce and did not harm the British • Napoleon was unable to stop British smuggling and trade with the United States • The plan also required Napoleon to police Europe

  9. The Peninsular War • When Portugal refused to follow the Continental System Napoleon was forced to invade • He also attacked Spain at the same time • In 1808 Napoleon had defeated Spain and set up his brother as King • The Spanish continued to fight a guerilla war and after 5 years drove the French out

  10. The Invasion of Russia • In 1812 Russia began trading with Britain and again Napoleon invaded • Napoleon created an army of over 600,000 men to attack Russia • The Russians knew they could not beat the French so they retreated east burning crops and buildings as they went • Napoleon reached Moscow in October and found it burning

  11. The Invasion of Russia • On October 19, 1812 Napoleon ordered a retreat from Russia • The march home decimated the army • They were lacking supplies and the Russian winter took a heavy toll • The Russians also attacked the French at several points along the way • Napoleon returned to France having lost his army

  12. The Battle of Nations • As soon as Napoleon returned from Russia Prussia, Sweden, Austria, and Russia attacked France • They defeated the French at Leipzig and then attacked Paris • In 1814 Napoleon was forced to abdicate

  13. Review • The Major Events leading to the fall of Napoleon were • The Continental System • The Peninsular War • The Invasion of Russia

  14. Video •