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Second Semester Overview. 1935-2013. Topics We Will Cover This Semester. World War II The atomic bomb The Cold War 1950s Youth Culture Conformity in the 1950s Civil Rights Movement Space Race Non-conformity in the 1960s Equality movements Stagnation in the 1970s Environmentalism

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topics we will cover this semester
Topics We Will Cover This Semester
  • World War II
  • The atomic bomb
  • The Cold War
  • 1950s Youth Culture
  • Conformity in the 1950s
  • Civil Rights Movement
  • Space Race
  • Non-conformity in the 1960s
  • Equality movements
  • Stagnation in the 1970s
  • Environmentalism
  • Ending the Cold War
  • Modern History
treaty of versailles review true or false
Treaty of Versailles Review: True or False?
  • Largely designed by Great Britain, France, Italy, and the U.S.
  • The Treaty was designed to create a “just and lasting peace”
  • Austria-Hungary officially blamed for the war
  • Germany stripped of its military
  • Central Powers stripped of their territories
  • Germany required to pay reparations
  • Created a “general association of nations” that would protect “great and small states alike”
  • Was a cause of German hyperinflation after the war
7 created a general association of nations that would protect great and small states alike
7. Created a “general association of nations” that would protect “great and small states alike”
hitler defies the versailles treaty
Hitler Defies the Versailles Treaty
  • Adolf Hitler announced that he would not obey the Treaty’s limitation of the German army.
  • The League of Nations issued a mild condemnation.
  • Adolf Hitler threatened to invade Austria unless Austrian Nazis were given important government posts.
  • The League of Nations issued a mild condemnation.
  • In March 1938, Hitler announced the unification of Austria and Germany
  • The League of Nations issued a mild condemnation.
  • Hitler claimed the Sudetenland (an area of Czechoslovakia with a large German-speaking population).
British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain

Europe’s Response to Hitler

  • Britain, France, Germany, and Italy met in Munich, Germany to solve the Czechoslovakia crisis
  • The Munich Pact: An agreement among the major powers of Europe to permit Hitler’s annexation of the Sudetenland, and essentially control over the rest of Czechoslovakia as long as Hitler promised to go no further
  • Appeasement: giving in to an aggressor to keep peace

Now we have “peace in our time!” Herr Hitler is a man we can do business with.

March 12, 1938 - Hitler annexes Austria
  • September 30, 1938 - Hitler claims the Sudetenland
  • March 15, 1939 - Hitler claims control over Czechoslovakia
  • September 1, 1939 – Hitler invades Poland

Hitler gets Greedy

hitler makes friends yes even genocidal m egalomaniacs have friends sorta
Hitler Makes Friends (Yes, even genocidal megalomaniacs have friends… sorta)
  • Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact: Hitler and Stalin sign an agreement stating that neither will attack the other in the event of war
    • Hitler wants to avoid a two-front war
    • Stalin knows his country is not ready to defend itself against the German military
  • Rome-Berlin Axis: a military alliance between Italy and Germany in 1939 under the “Pact of Steel”
  • Tripartite Pact: a military alliance between Germany, Italy, and Japan in September 1940; created the Axis powers
the war begins
The War Begins!
  • Britain and France declare they WILL have war with Germany if the Germans don’t withdraw from Poland immediately.
  • Based on Germany’s experience with countries like Britain and France what do you think will happen?
  • Germany does not withdraw. In fact, they ignore the British and refuse to answer them.
  • Britain declares war on September 3rd, 1939.
  • Phony War: Not much happens between the invasion of Poland and April, 1940. Both sides are prepping for war.
A line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, artillery casemates, machine gun posts, and other defenses, which France constructed along its borders with Germany and Italy, in light of its experience in World War I.
  • It would provide time for their army to mobilize in the event of attack.

Maginot Line

(Maginot Line)

If you were Hitler, what would be your strategy for invading France?

  • In German blitzkrieg means “lightning war”.
  • Blitzkrieg included surprise attacks, rapid advances into enemy territory, and massive air attacks that struck and shocked the enemy.
  • Germany achieved most of its victories in World War II with the Blitzkrieg tactic.
the invasion of france
The Invasion of France
  • Germany bypasses the Maginot Line by marching through Belgium.
  • France surrenders in 39 days.
  • Germany takes over the North and Western parts of France and sets up it’s own “French” government (Vichy Government), leaving the Free France government in the South.
  • The French Resistance was led by Charles DeGaulle
american neutrality
American “Neutrality”

Picking sides without actually picking sides

post war america
Post-war America
  • Because the U.S. entered the Great War so late, they were the only major nation to make it out with a stable economy.
  • The Roaring 20’s solidified America’s place as the most powerful nation in the world.
  • The Great Depression tanked the U.S. economy, and the effects were felt worldwide.
  • America retreated into isolationism – the policy of isolating one's country from the affairs of other nations and seeking to devote all the country’s efforts to its own advancement.
american neutrality1
American Neutrality
  • Neutrality Acts: A series of acts that officially stated America’s neutrality in the rising European conflict in an attempt to ensure that the US would not become entangled again in foreign conflicts like WWI.
  • Problems: They made no distinction between aggressor and victim, treating both equally as "belligerents"; and they limited the US government's ability to aid Britain and France against Nazi Germany.
Britain Remains Defiant
  • Great Britain stands alone against Germany in Europe; Hitler thought that Britain would negotiate peace after France surrendered
  • He did not anticipate the bravery of the British people and their prime minister, Winston Churchill.
Battle of


Battle of


The London “Tube”:

Air Raid Shelters During the Blitz

Britain Remains Defiant
  • The German Luftwaffelaunched an all-out air battle to destroy the British Royal Air Force, who was greatly outnumbered.
  • The British had radar stations and were able to detect incoming German aircraft and direct British fighters to intercept them.
  • Hitler is eventually forced to give up
american neutrality is tested
American Neutrality is Tested
  • After seeing its long-time ally attacked by Nazi forces, America’s neutrality quickly dissolved.
  • Cash-and-Carry: allowed the sale of material to belligerents, as long as the recipients arranged for the transport using their own ships and paid immediately in cash, assuming all risk in transportation
  • Destroyers-for-Bases: transferred fifty mothballed destroyers from the United States Navy in exchange for land rights on British possessions
american neutrality is tested1
American Neutrality is Tested
  • Lend-Lease Act: the United States of America supplied the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, China, Free France, and other Allied nations with material between 1941 and 1945. The terms of the agreement provided that the material were to be used until time for their return or destruction.
  • Atlantic Charter: A treaty of friendship signed by Roosevelt and Churchill in August 1941, it stated the ideal goals of the war.
    • Fashioned after Wilson’s 14 Points.
    • The agreement proved to be one of the first steps towards the formation of the United Nations
japan seeks an empire
Japan Seeks an Empire

The events that bring America into the war

imperial japan
Imperial Japan
  • The Emperor of Japan had ultimate control over the government, with the Prime Minister, Parliament, and the military beneath his authority.
  • Citizens lost faith in the Japanese government during the Depression
  • Militarists took control of the country, but kept Hirohito as a symbol of power for citizens.
  • Military leaders sought to increase Japan’s economy through foreign expansion.

Emperor Hirohito

japan seeks an empire1
Japan Seeks An Empire
  • Four years after invading Manchuria, Japan invades China
  • Despite being severely outnumbered (China had over 1 million troops), Japan wins due to better equipment and training.
  • In 1931, Japan attacked Manchuria in an attempt by the to gain control over the whole province, and eventually encompass all of East Asia.
  • Japan held major interests in Manchuria (iron, coal)
japan seeks an empire2
Japan Seeks An Empire
  • Rape of Nanking: A six-week period following the Japanese capture of the city of Nanking, in which hundreds of thousands of civilians were murdered, and 20,000–80,000 women were raped by soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army.
  • Civilians were shot, beheaded, buried alive, etc.
  • These events swung public opinion in the West sharply against Japan, which prompted the United States to provide loan assistance for war supply contracts to the Republic of China.
  • After Japan invaded Vietnam, the United States halted shipments of airplanes, parts, machine tools, and oil to Japan; this was perceived by Japan as an unfriendly act.
the surprise attack on pearl harbor
The “Surprise” attack on Pearl Harbor
  • October, 1940
  • The US cracks one of the codes Japan was sending, and was well aware of Japan’s plans for Southeast Asia
  • If they succeeded, they could threaten American –controlled Guam and the Philippines.
  • The US cuts off oil supplies to Japan
  • In response, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto called for an attack on the US
the attack
The Attack
  • Intended as a preventive action to remove the US Pacific Fleet as a factor in the war Japan was about to wage against Britain, the Netherlands, and the United States.
  • No declaration of war was given.
  • Just before 8 am, December 7, 1941, The naval base at Pearl Harbor on the island of Oahu was attacked.
the axis powers
The Axis Powers
  • A pact signed in Berlin, Germany on September 27, 1940, which established the Axis Powers of World War II. The pact was signed by representatives of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Imperial Japan.
the allied powers
The Allied Powers
  • Made up of the United States, Great Britain, the French Resistance, the Soviet Union, and China.
four freedoms speech
“Four Freedoms” Speech

In the future days, which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms. The first is freedom of speech and expression—everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way—everywhere in the world. The third is freedom from want—which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants—everywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear—which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor—anywhere in the world. That is no vision of a distant millennium. It is a definite basis for a kind of world attainable in our own time and generation. That kind of world is the very antithesis of the so-called new order of tyranny which the dictators seek to create with the crash of a bomb.

—Franklin D. Roosevelt, excerpted from the State of the Union Address to the Congress, January 6, 1941

four freedoms
“Four Freedoms”
  • At the 1941 State of the Union Address, FDR gave a speech in which he described four essential freedoms that the world should all enjoy:
    • Freedom of Speech
    • Freedom of Religion
    • Freedom from Want
    • Freedom from Fear
  • They would later be included in the UN’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights and inspire Norman Rockwell to paint four illustrations of the ideals for the cover of the Saturday Evening Post
Freedom of



from Fear


from Want

Freedom of


the pacific theatre
The Pacific Theatre

Early Battles Against Japan

japan s victories
Japan’s Victories
  • Japan attacks Guam on December 8, 1941 (but technically the same day as Pearl Harbor because of the IDL)
  • At the outbreak of war, Guam was defended by small US Navy and USMC units (547 men total)
  • The Japanese landed about 400 troops on Guam on December 10,1941 at 8:45am. They attacked and quickly defeated the token resistance
  • Governor McMillin officially surrendered at 6:00am the following morning.
japan looks to the philippines
Japan looks to the Philippines
  • As Japan looks to the Philippines, the US and Filipino forces take up a defensive position on the Bataan Peninsula
  • Japan takes over the Philippines after three months of fighting
  • Similar to the other nations they had taken over, they often treated the people with extreme cruelty.
  • POW: Prisoner of War
  • The Japanese considered it highly dishonorable to surrender, so they looked upon the POWs with extreme contempt.
primary source
Primary Source

“I was questioned by a Japanese officer, who found out that I had been in a Philippine Scout Battalion. The [Japanese] hated the Scouts… Anyway, they took me outside and I was forced to watch as they buried six of my Scouts alive. They made the men dig their own graves, and then had them kneel down in a pit. The guards hit them over the head with shovels to stun them and piled earth on top.”

  • Lt. John Spainhower
bataan death march
Bataan Death March

76,000 prisoners (12,000 Americans) marched 60 miles in the blazing heat to POW camps

the doolittle raid
The Doolittle Raid

It was decided that the military would bomb Tokyo.

Using short-range B-25 bombers, they took off from nearby aircraft carriers, bombed the city, and landed in China.

he Doolittle raid was America's first strike back at the Japanese during the war. With Japan running through the Pacific much like the Germans did to Europe in the beginnings of WWII , this was the first opportunity for the US to go on the offensive, with previous battles being solely defensive. We struck the Japanese home land, which Japan thought could not be done by the fact that the US Navy was severly damaged by the attack on Pearl Harbor. It lifted the morale of the entire country by letting the Japanese know that we were down but not defeated.

battle of the coral sea
Battle of the Coral Sea

The Japanese quickly changed their strategy when they realized that the bombs could have killed their emperor.

They decided to bring the US Navy into battle near New Guinea and at Midway Island to break the supply line to Australia.

American code breakers had already discovered the Japanese plan, which allowed the US Navy to intercept the Japanese and keep supply lines open.

battle of midway
The code-breakers had also discovered the plan to attack Midway Island.

Admiral Nimitz saw an opportunity to ambush the Japanese fleet.

Unaware, the Japanese launched their aircraft against Midway, and were met by a blizzard of antiaircraft fire; 38 planes were shot down.

Battle of Midway
battle of midway1
Battle of Midway

The Japanese prepared a second wave of attack, but American aircraft caught them and destroyed their aircraft carriers, along with the fuel, bombs, and aircraft held on them.

Admiral Yamamoto ordered his remaining ships to retreat.

This was a major turning point in the war in the Pacific, with the U.S. stopping the Japanese fleet its advance into the Pacific.