Protein synthesis
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Protein Synthesis. Scientists call this the:. DNA. DNA. Central Dogma of Biology!. RNA. RNA. Protein. Protein. Part 1: DNA Structure and Replication. What is DNA?. DNA = D eoxyribo n ucleic A cid

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Protein synthesis

Scientists call this the:



Central Dogma of Biology!





What is dna
What is DNA?

  • DNA = Deoxyribonucleic Acid

  • It is the blueprint for life – it is the molecule which stores genetic information in ALL living things

  • DNA contains the instructions for making proteins, which control your cells

Nucleic acids dna
Nucleic Acids: DNA

  • DNA is a nucleic acid and is make up of two strands of nucleotides

  • A nucleotide is a monomer of a nucleic acid and has 3 parts connected with covalent bonds

    • sugar

    • Phosphate group

    • Nitrogen Base

  • In DNA, the sugar is deoxyribose

Dna s nitrogen bases
DNA’s Nitrogen Bases

  • There are four possible nitrogen bases

  • 2 are called purines (2 rings)

    • Adenine

    • Guanine

  • 2 are called pyrimidines (1 ring)

    • Thymine

    • Cytosine

  • A purine always matches up with a pyrimidine this is called complementary base pairing

    • Adenine pairs with thymine (A-T)

    • Guanine pairs with cytosine (G-C)

Dna s shape
DNA’s Shape

  • The nitrogen bases are held together in the middle by a weak hydrogen bond, which causes the ladder to twist

  • There are 3 between G and C and 2 between A and T.

  • This causes the DNA to have a Double Helix shape

Dna replication
DNA Replication

  • Why does DNA need to replicate?

    • Before a cell can divide (through mitosis or meiosis) its genetic information must be copied for the new cell

    • This ensures that the new cell is genetically identical to the parent cell, and that it has all of the necessary information to carry on life processes

    • The structure of the double helix explains how DNA copies itself

Protein synthesis

DNA Replication

The “parent” molecule has two complementary strands of DNA.

Each is base paired by hydrogen bonding with its specific partner:

A with T

G with C

Protein synthesis

DNA Replication

The first step in replication is the separation of the two strands. This is done by the enzyme helicase. Helicase unwinds the two strands and then breaks up the hydrogen bonds in the middle.

Protein synthesis

DNA Replication

Each exposed parental strand now serves as a template that determines the order of the bases along a new complementary strand.

Free floating nucleotides in the nucleus will add on to each exposed strand, forming two new molecules of DNA. This process is performed by the enzyme DNA polymerase. DNA polymerase adds the bases in the correct order, and also “proof-reads” the strands as it makes the new one.

A will pair with a T. T will pair with an A.

G will pair with a C. C will pair with a G.

Protein synthesis

DNA Replication

The nucleotides are connected to form the sugar-phosphate backbones of the new strands. This is done by the enzyme ligase, which is like a “glue.”

Each daughter DNA molecule consists of one parental strand and one new strand.

This model of replication is called semi-conservative replication. This is due to the fact that each new molecule has one old strand and one new strand. This ensures that each molecule of DNA is accurate.