Definitions and IDs • urbanization • Enclosure Movement • Cottage Industry • Luddites
Questions and Imperatives • Why was the Agricultural Revolution necessary for the Industrial Revolution? • Why did the Industrial Revolution take place first in England? • How did the Industrial Revolution change everyday life for the people? • How do technology and urbanization influence the relationship between humans and nature? (Class discussion)
Industrial Revolution • term to cover one stage of general “modernization” • another aspect is urbanization, growth of cities as people move from rural regions to cities to find work • best known element of that stage is invention of power-driven machinery • the industrial revolution transformed economic and social life. • began in England around the 1760s (through 1850) and started to influence continental Europe after 1815. • changed patterns of work (machines took over for human and animal labor) • transformed social class structure and the way people thought about class • altered the international balance of political power • standard of living became better for some people, though limited at first • not all industries experience the technological revolution, some continued with old methods (especially on the continent) and production did not increase
WHY & WHERE? • England’s economy expanded in the 18th century, exporting across the Atlantic • England’s geographic position helped her, navigable water (ocean, rivers, canals) • no tariffs to hinder trade • England’s industrial leadership was supported by her effective central bank and well-developed credit markets • England had stable, predictable government that encouraged personal initiative, technical change, and free market • England had a large working class...included hired agricultural laborers and other rural workers who were relatively mobile • Population explosion of the 18th century (fewer deaths) • Agricultural revolution
AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION • Necessary for Industrial Revolution! • English farmer second to only the Dutch in productivity in 1700 and began to copy some of her methods • population explosion initially caused food prices to increase and large landowners profited...with their profits they could improve their situation
Enclosure Movement • traditional “open field” agricultural policy • did not allow for innovation. • No fences, people shared common land for animal grazing • Some British landowners put together fields and enclosed • worked well for wealthier farmers, but poor farmers complained. • The enclosure movement eliminated the open field system • In some cases small farmers could not compete with the larger farmers. • Some, but not all, moved to the cities to find other employment. • Others did stay to work on the larger farms (wage earners). • 18th century did see a drop in people making their living from the land.
New Methods • English enthusiastically continued to adopt new methods of farming as century went on resulting in a period of bountiful crops and low food prices by 1760 • use of crop rotation • diversifying crops • trying new fertilizers • developing new equipment! • JethroTull, an agricultural inventor whose ideas encouraged others to experiment with new ideas • with low food prices, families had extra money to buy shoes, clothing, toys...this created a demand for goods within the country (in addition to the demand from the outside)
Cottage System • Population growth increased number of rural workers with little or no land. • poor needed to supplement agricultural income • Peasants had always worked in their homes • “Cottage System,” • This system spread through the 18th century with the population growth. • The “putting out” system: • Merchants were the “middle men” • Merchants “put out” (i.e. loaned) the raw materials used by the workers • workers produced a finished product and were paid by the piece • Merchants paid workers & sold finished product in commercial markets • some workers provided their own raw materials • in some cases, workers combined their efforts in a project • production system was unregulated & both sides could negotiate • This “freedom” could also create problems.
Finished products included • houseware, • clothing, • musical instruments...a • specialized products (tapestries, porcelain...) • textile factories grew out of the cottage system • All members of the family helped
Inventions • Inventions of 1700s built off of each other: • “Flying Shuttle” - improved the construction of the loom which sped up weaving (time) • Lewis Paul, 1738, tried to improve spinning aspect in same way as Kay • “Water Frame” - improvement on Lewis Paul device, 1768 (Richard Arkwright, barber) • “Spinning Jenny” - James Heargraves, weaver and carpenter, 1770, allowed one to spin many threads at a time, from eight up to 100 by 1783 (improved version)… • 20Kmachines (simple and inexpensive) were in use in England by 1788 • “Spinny Mule” - Samuel Crompton’s spin-off of the “jenny”, steam powered (1779) • these inventions fed off of each other from the initial desire for cotton • by the late 1830’s, cotton fabric accounted for 1/2 of all British exports • At the same time cotton was being bought at home. It was cheap. • Now even poor people could afford body linen (underwear)!
Sexual division of labor • women and girls did the milking and spinning • men and boys did the plowing and weaving.
CHANGES IN TECHNOLOGY • textiles (cotton primarily) • mining (coal...) • metal (iron...) • CHANGES were the invention of new machinery • Trade with other countries gave the British a taste for other goods. • Trade with India provided England with cotton. They loved it. It was lighter, could be made clean by washing, and held colorful dyes. • Drab wool had competition. Merchants who dealt in wool found ways to restrict cotton goods coming into the country. • People still wanted cotton ==> Let’s develop ways to produce our own. • Did the Textile Industry grow without support from other industries? NO! • It was dependent on metals and forms of energy to create and improve new devices!!
Industries • Coal Industry: • Coal and wood were both used as energy sources • demand for coal increased and new methods needed to acquire more coal. • They dug deeper, but ran into water problems. • Steam Engine: • James Watt created steam engine in 1769 • He later created an even more effective engine. • Iron Industry: • Coal could not be used in the smelting process and wood was scarce. • Abraham Darby found that he could use coke (coal product) to smelt iron ore. And another improved on his process. • Point: Inventions built off of each other and paralleled each other based on need.
Factories • “factory” is a shortened form of ‘manufactory,’ meaning ‘production by hand’ • concentration of workers under one roof preceded power driven machinery • all industries affected by new factory system lead by textile industry • late 18th century factories began to rise slowly • 1782, Manchester had 2 cotton mills, 20 years later there were 52 • took money to run a factory, startup costs etc. • factories found in the cities...many still desired rural life • factories were built where there were large groups of people and people moved to new factory towns (both ways) • working new machines seemed a bit scary • periods of rural unemployment forced people to the cities to work in factories • times of depression, bad harvests, droughts,...forced people to the cities • new machinery and consolidated labor increased productivity
A NEW WAY TO WORK • time, discipline, competition • someone else told you how to work • long hours, no flexibility • there was someone to take your job • Running machines not too difficult, no special training • men, women, and children worked in factories according to abilities • orphans were forced to work as apprentices under difficult conditions (until Factory Act of 1833 limited the workday for children) • Artisans??? • WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT CREATIVITY?? WAS IT LOST? • Lives were changed dramatically, thus called a revolution.
WORKER PROTEST • The factory changed the lives of the workers. • As farmers, they worked with the rhythms of nature. • They worked with the light and slept with the dark. • decided to buy or not buy more land when they could afford it. • They could choose crops that gave them the best yield or price. • They worked as family units. • They had control over their livelihood. • The factory changed that. • Now, someone else told them the hours they would work, when they could have a break, what job they could do • It was routine, repetitive, monotonous. (anyone ever work in a factory?) • They had to follow the tempo of the machine • They felt they were treated as children. • They could make no decisions concerning their work.
The Luddites • machines caused workers to be at different social levels • And it was the machinery they attempted to destroy. • Sabotaged early spinning and weaving inventions. • The Ludditeswere followers of the mythical Ned Ludd • protested wage cuts (factory owners could do what they wanted) in 1811 • They wrecked the knitting frames. • The following year, a law was passed that made machine breaking an offense punishable by hanging. • This did not deter the Luddites. • In fact they broadened their efforts to other types of factories • British authorities called the Luddite movement an act against the government • The movement continued, but eventually died out • Progress had won? • Luddites were seen as holding back progress. • Were they against the new machinery, against progress, or just against they lives changing so much? • It had been an organized protest and a movement. There were worker movements in other countries as well.
The GREAT CHANGE • FARM MACHINERY IMPROVED => • FOOD PRODUCTION INCREASED => • AGRICULTURAL EFFICIENCY AIDED IN THE RISE IN BIRTH RATE => • CREATED SURPLUS LABOR AND FREED PEOPLE TO LEAVE THE LAND AND MOVE TO CITIES => • INVENTIONS (LARGER MACHINERY) PIGGY-BACKED OFF OF EARLIER INVENTIONS • G.B. HAD • 1) PROSPEROUS FARMERS • 2) MOBILE LABORERS • 3) SKILLED ARTISANS • 4) READY SUPPLIES OF COAL AND IRON • 5) EXTENSIVE NETWORK OF TRADE • 6) SMALL INTERNAL DISTANCES • 7) RISING POPULATION • 8) POLITICAL STABILITY • It took decades before continental Europe could compete.
Industrial Revolution spreads to Europe • FRANCE: • world’s second leading economy, but Napoleonic times interrupted economic development • France’s population grew only by 30% in the time that England’s had grown 50% • Urbanization was slower in France and that kept down the demand for manufactured goods • Agricultural production developed more slowly in France, and small family farms remained common (cultural differences) • For France, this began in 1815 after the Napoleonic wars; industrial production rose steadily • The articles of Paris included gloves, umbrella, boots, furniture • GERMANY: • German industrialization lagged behind Britain and France • Why was growth of manufacturing held back? • Confederations of states, not yet unified • Tolls and customs barriers between states • Monopolies held by guilds over the production of certain products • German states remained generally rural; no growth in cities • EASTERN EUROPE – Much later • SPAIN – lacked navigable rivers and rail lines, therefore later
POPULATION • 18001850% • London 950,000 2,363,000 2.5 • Paris 547,000 1,053,000 1.9 • Berlin 172,000 419,000 2.4 • Moscow 200,000 365,000 1.8 • Vienna 247,000 444,000 1.8 • Naples 350,000 415,000 1.2
QUESTION: What machine do you use now that your grandchildren won’t believe you used, because it is so old-fashioned?
DISCUSSION QUESTION: Which do you think had a greater impact on Europe – French Revolution or Industrial Revolution? Why?