CIRCULATORY SYSTEM I. How do vampires like to travel? By blood vessel!
1. heart I. There are two major components of the circulatory system. 2. arteries 3. arterioles 4. capillaries 5. venules 6. veins A. The cardiovascular system:
B. The lymph vascular system 1. blind ended lymphatic capillaries that collect lymph fluid from tissues 2. larger lymphatic vessels that connect with one and other and finally empty collected lymph into large veinsin the neck where the lymphatic and cardiovascular systems merge. http://www.cs.stedwards.edu/~kswank/LymphSyst.html
II. General cardiovascular circulation A. Two major components 1. arterial system 2. venous system http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEC/CC/art_vein.gif
B. Together these two systems form two major circulatory loops 1. systemic loop 2. pulmonary loop http://gened.emc.maricopa.edu/bio/bio181/BIOBK/ BioBookcircSYS.html#Vertebrate Cardiovascular Syste
III. Structure of vessels I - General structure of larger blood vessels. A. Blood vessels larger than capillaries are encircled by 2 or more of the following tissue layers. In most instances, all 3 layers are present. •tunica intima •tunica media •tunica adventitia
http://www.mmi.mcgill.ca/Unit2/McKee/lect47histcapillariesbv.htmhttp://www.mmi.mcgill.ca/Unit2/McKee/lect47histcapillariesbv.htm 1. tunica intima (often referred to as the "intima"). Starting from the inside of the blood vessel and moving outward. a. layer of simple squamous epithelium called endothelium. b. the endothelial layer is encircled by a subendothelial layer of loose connective tissue that may contain some smooth muscle cells. http://medic.med.uth.tmc.edu/edprog/images/Cv1.jpg
1. tunica intima http://meded.ucsd.edu/hist-img-bank/chapter_3/Slide_58_artery/pages/a.220.127.116.11.htm c. In arteries, the intima often appears scalloped (wrinkled) in sections due to contraction of the smooth muscle cells present in the subendothelial layer.
III. Structure of vessels I - General structure of larger blood vessels. 2. tunica media ("media") a. this layer encircles the intima b. consists of circumferential smooth muscle with extracellular matrix secreted by the muscle cells •collagen, •elastin, •various proteoglycans c. in muscular arteries a layer of elastin called the internal elastic lamina separates the intima and media http://medic.med.uth.tmc.edu/edprog/images/Cv1.jpg
2. tunica media (or "media") d. in larger muscular arteries, an external elastic lamina separates the media from the outer adventitial layer. e. in large blood vessels, the media receives nutrients from arterioles/capillaries that branch off of arterioles in the adventitia and extend into it. http://meded.ucsd.edu/hist-img-bank/chapter_3/Slide_58_artery/pages/b.18.104.22.168.htm
III. Structure of vessels I - General structure of larger blood vessels. 3. tunica adventitia (or "adventitia") a. connective tissue layer with high content of collagen and elastic fibers in extracellular matrix between fibroblasts http://medic.med.uth.tmc.edu/edprog/images/Cv1.jpg b. this layer gradually becomes continuous with the connective tissue of the organ/tissue the vessel is in http://22.214.171.124/IDS_100/vessels/fig2.html
c. in larger vessels a network of small blood vessels called the vasa vasorum is present in the adventitia. Branches of these vessels (arterioles, capillaries) venules) will extend into the tunica adventitia and the outer half of the media. * these provide nutrients to cells in the adventitia and media. http://medic.med.uth.tmc.edu/edprog/images/Cv1.jpg http://www.finchcms.edu/anatomy/histology/organology/circulatory/o_c_10.html
IV. Structure of vessels II - General relationship between tunics and arterial and venous vessels
V. Structure of vessels III - Arteries A. Large elastic arteries (e.g. descending aorta and large branches thereof) 1. very thick tunica intima consisting of the endothelium with a relatively thick sub-endothelial layer of loose connective tissue. An internal elastic lamina may or may not be present. 2. sub-endothelial basal lamina of intima may not be present 3. lots of elastinin tunica media that gives these vessels yellow color in life http://www.lab.anhb.uwa.edu.au/mb140/
A. Large elastic arteries (e.g. decending aorta and large branches thereof) • 4. media consists of concentrically arranged • sheets of elastin fibers • smooth muscle cells • collagen fibers. • The number and thickness of the elastic layers increases with age 5. tunica adventitia is usually relatively thin with a vasa vasorum (network of blood vessels) http://www.lab.anhb.uwa.edu.au/mb140/
B. Muscular arteries 1. essentially all the named and unnamed arteries in the body, except for the large elastic arteries, are muscular arteries. 2. tunica intima very thin-consists of endothelium and a flattened subendothelial layer of collagen and elastic fibers. A predominant feature of the intima is the internal elastic lamina. http://www3.umdnj.edu/histsweb/lab7/lab7musleartery.html http://education.vetmed.vt.edu/Curriculum/VM8054/Labs/Lab12b/EXAMPLES/Exmusart.htm http://www.lab.anhb.uwa.edu.au/mb140/CorePages/Vascular/Vascular.htm
B. Muscular arteries 3. the tunicamedia is the major identifying characteristic. It consists of a thick smooth muscular layer with as many as 40 layers of smooth muscle encircling the artery. 4. spasmodic contraction of the media smooth muscle helps prevent hemorrhaging during injury. 5. larger muscular arteries may have an external elastic lamina. 6. adventitia is well developed and may be thinner than media. http://www.lab.anhb.uwa.edu.au/mb140/CorePages/Vascular/Vascular.htm
C. Arterioles 1. arterioles are small arteries, 0.04 - 0.4 mm in diameter 2. tunica intima consists of the endothelium - no sub-endothelial layer of loose connective tissue 3. media is muscular and composed of 1-3 layers of smooth muscle 4. adventitia is fairly prominent http://www.finchcms.edu/anatomy/histology/organology/circulatory/images/ff518.jpg
D. Metarterioles 1. metarterioles connect larger arterioles to capillaries 2. less than 40 μm in diameter 3. consist of endothelium surrounded by a few discontinuous smooth muscle fibers 4. Smooth muscle cells act as sphincters that control the flow of blood through capillary beds http://126.96.36.199/IDS_100/vessels/fig12.html
VI. Structure of vessels IV A. Capillaries 1. usually 7-9 μm in diameter, but may be as small as 5 μm or as large as 12 μm in diameter or even up to 40 μm in the case of sinusoidal capillaries. 2. wall consists of a simple squamous epithelium called endothelium. This is just the continuation of the endothelium that lines the whole circulatory system, without the various additional connective tissue and muscular layers that we find surrounding larger blood vessels. http://188.8.131.52/IDS_100/vessels/fig11.html
http://184.108.40.206/IDS_100/vessels/fig7.html http://www.medscape.com/content/2004/00/46/94/469492/469492_fig.html http://220.127.116.11/IDS_100/vessels/fig11.html 3. this simple squamous epithelium is surrounded by a basal lamina. 4. cells called pericytes may be sporadically found between the basal lamina and the endothelial cells. These cells may be able to contract and thus constrict capillaries.
VI. Structure of vessels IV A. Capillaries 5. The circumference of the endothelial wall of a capillary is formed by 2-3 squamous cells a. held together by occluding or gap junctions b. nuclei bulge into the capillary lumen (as opposed to pericytes). http://cal.vet.upenn.edu/histo/bloodvessels/capillary.html
A. Capillaries - examples http://www.finchcms.edu/anatomy/histology/organology/ circulatory/o_c_4.html http://www.udel.edu/Biology/Wags/histopage/colorpage/cbv/cav.GIF
6. The walls of certain types of capillaries a. may have fenestrae (holes, sometimes with diaphragms) penetrating the squamous endothelial cells b. or there may be spaces (pores) between adjacent endothelial cells http://18.104.22.168/IDS_100/vessels/fig6.html
B. There are 3 types of capillaries. 1. continuous capillaries a. no fenestrae or pores in wall b. most capillaries are of this type
2. fenestrated or perforated capillaries a. fenestrations (or pores) penetrate the endothelial cells - may have diaphragm. b. found in tissues where rapid exchange of substances occurs (found principally in capillaries of the villi of the intestinal wall and glomeruli of the kidney).
3. Sinusoids andsinusoidal capillaries a. highly convoluted and with enlarged diameter (30-40 μm) c. many small multiple fenestrations without diaphragms penetrate the endothelial cells b. open spaces are present between the endothelial cells http://www.finchcms.edu/anatomy/histology/organology/circulatory/images/ff549.jpg
d. phagocytic cells are present in and around the endothelial layer e. the endothelium lacks a continuous basal lamina f. In some cases the endothelium itself may be discontinuous g. found mainly in liver and hematopoietic organs such as bone marrow and spleen.
Sinusoid in spleen Sinusoid in liver http://www.medinfo.ufl.edu/year1/histo/images/k13h.jpg http://www.finchcms.edu/anatomy/histology/organology/lymphoid/images/ff649.jpg
Capillaries C. So, in the case of capillaries with fenestrations or spaces between endothelial cells, we can see that these vessels are constructed to allow for the easy passage of materials (macromolecules) and sometimes cells (e.g. monocytes) into and out of the circulatory system. D. This can occur through fenestrations or spaces between cells. E. In continuous, as well as other types of capillaries, macromolecules can also be passed into or out of the circulatory system by what might be called transcellular pinocytosis.