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AP Review Lecture 1. 1400-1600. The End of the Middle Ages…. Crises in the 14 th century undermined Medieval Europe. Decline of the Roman Catholic Church- Babylonian Captivity- French Pope is elected (Clement V) and moves the papacy to Avignon where it remains for 70 years.

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The end of the middle ages
The End of the Middle Ages…

  • Crises in the 14th century undermined Medieval Europe.

    • Decline of the Roman Catholic Church- Babylonian Captivity- French Pope is elected (Clement V) and moves the papacy to Avignon where it remains for 70 years.

    • Great Schism- 1377 Pope Gregory XI moves the papacy back to Rome. Urban VI, an Italian is elected Pope upon Gregory’s death. French cardinals were upset about an Italian Pope and thus elected their own Clement VII who ruled from Avignon.

    • From 1378-1417 there were 2 Popes. France and it’s allies supported the Avignon Pope and England and France’s enemies supported the Roman Pope.

    • Council of Pisa- 1409 deposed both Pope’s and elected Alexander V- now there were three popes because the original 2 refused to step down.

    • Council of Constance- 1414-1418- ended the Great Schism- Martin V is the new and only Pope.

    • Heresy- teaching that is contrary to the Church

      • Wycliffe- translated the bible into English and rejected the authority of the papacy and hierarchy of the Church, denounced the wealth and corruption of the church. His followers were known as Lollards

      • Jan Hus- Followers were the Hussites, his ideas foreshadowed Luther’s and he was burned at the stake for heresy.

  • The Black Death- 35-65% of the European population died, hit the poor the hardest because it struck urban areas the worst.

  • Loss of Population causes an economic decline, but also led to a decline in serfdom and the manorial system (medieval practices)

  • Black death provoked intense superstition and hysteria in Europe and led to increased persecution of the Jews.

Growth of nation states
Growth of Nation States

  • England-

    • Hundred Years War (1337-1453)- between England and France, disastrous an weakened both countries.

    • War of the Roses (1455-1485)- Civil War in England- Lancaster vs. York and established Henry VII (Henry Tudor) as the king of England. Henry VII restored authority to the monarchy, reduced the power of the nobility to increase his power, created a surplus in the treasurery and mended foreign affairs with most countries.

  • France- Louis XI, recovered from the Hundred Years War devastation and regained France’s position as the leading power of Europe.

    • Centralized bureaucracy and weakened nobility

    • Created an effective army, used diplomacy in foreign affairs

    • King Francis I centralized the monarchy and strengthened the army.

      • Intervened in Italy and went to war with Charles V, Hapsburg, who was king of the HRE and of Spain.

Growth of nation states1
Growth of Nation States

  • Spain- Reconquista of Spain concluded in 1492- the Muslims were expelled from Spain by Ferdinand and Isabella.

    • They combined kingdoms and strengthened the monarchy and the army. Christopher Columbus discovered the new world.

    • They gained control over the Catholic Church in Spain and created the Inquisition, an important instrument of power for the monarchy. Torquemada served as chief inquisitor.

    • Ferdinand and Isabella believed that religious unity was crucial to political unity, so in 1492, all Spanish Jews had to adopt Christianity or get out of Spain. Converted Jews were constantly hounded by the inquisition and many were expelled from Spain regardless of conversion.

  • Holy Roman Empire- Strong monarchies emerge in Spain, France and England, but the German lands, the HRE, remained decentralized.

    • Charles V became HRE and Spanish King.

    • Involved in a bitter war with Francis I of France over Burgandian lands and Italian lands.

    • Also faced Martin Luther’s reformation in Germany.

    • 1556- Charles V abdicated, giving his Spanish lands to his son Philip II of Spain and his HRE lands to his younger brother Ferdinand I.

Renaissance 1350 1600
Renaissance 1350-1600

  • Renaissance means rebirth, involved an intense interest in the classical cultures of Greece and Rome. It also brought a secular spirit to Rome as people focused on this world and the individual vs. the Church and heaven.

  • Italy was divided politically but had lots of wealthy city-states (Florence, Venice, Rome and Milan…)

    • Florence- emerged as a major banking center. Ruled by an oligarchy- dominated by the Medici- had extensive interests in industry, trade and banking. Cosimo de ’Medici and Lorenzo the Great were the most famous.

    • Humanism (Petrarch) in Italy vs. Humanism in Northern Europe (Christian humanism, Erasmus)- Italian humanism focused on the classics, as did northern, but humanists in the north wanted to unite classical learning and the Christian faith, they wanted to educate in order to strengthen the church.

    • Be able to compare Humanism and Scholasticism (medieval philosophy)

    • Famous Figures- Machiavelli (prominent in Florence, The Prince- better to be feared than loved); Leonardo da Vinci (prominent painter, sculptor, scientist and inventor, Mona Lisa…), Michelangelo (prominent sculptor and painter, The David, Sistine Chapel Ceiling), Thomas More (English, northern humanist, Utopia), Donatello (famous sculptor, bronze David), Bruneschelli (the dome in Florence)

      • Make sure to know the characteristics of Renaissance art, classically themed, perspective, glorified the individual vs. the church…

The reformation
The Reformation

  • Lutheranism was the first of the Reformation movements.

    • He was a monk, upset in particular by the corruption of the church with regards to the sell of indulgences. (Tetzel). He wrote the 95 Theses and posted it on the door of a church, someone else took it and copied it and spread it around.

    • Luther’s Beliefs: Justification by faith- solo scriptura, solo fidelis, solo Christ- the only path to salvation was through faith in Christ, there is nothing a believer can do to earn salvation.

    • 1519- Luther debates Johannes Eck at the Leipzig debate. This debate is important because it is what made Luther realize his beliefs really did differ from the church, and it showed the similarity of his beliefs to those of Jan Hus, a convicted heretic.

    • 1520- Pope Leo X excommunicates Luther

    • 1521- Diet of Worms- Luther refuses to recant and is declared an outlaw by Charles V, HRE.

    • 1524- Luther condemns the Peasants Revolt in Germany- he is not for social change, just religious.

    • 1555 Peace of Augsburg- Gives German princes the right to determine the religion of his state, either Roman Catholic or Lutheran, but it did not recognize other religious groups like Calvinists and Anabaptists.

    • Lutheranism becomes the predominant religion in much of Germany.

Other reformers
Other Reformers

  • Zwingli- humanist and catholic priest, originally hopes the Church would reform itself. In 1519 he led the church in Zurich to break from the Catholic Church.

    • Believes in supremacy of the Bible, but did believe in at least 2 of the sacraments, baptism and holy communion. Rejects celibacy of priests and emphasizes simplicity in worship.

  • John Calvin emerges, is forced to flee France, a Catholic country, for Switzerland. The Institutes of the Christian Religion lay out his doctrine.

    • Bible is the only source of Christian doctrine (like Luther) and that there were only 2 sacraments, baptism and communion.

    • He differed with his doctrine of salvation by predestination, at the beginning of creation, the all powerful and knowing God planned the entire universe and determined those who would be saved and those would not.

    • Established a theocracy in Geneva but it didn’t last.

    • Spread to France in the mid 16th century, Huguenots, and it spread to Scotland- Presbyterianism. In England, the Calvinists were Puritans, wanted to purify the English church of Catholicism. It also spread to the Dutch and the Netherlands.

  • Anabaptists- radicals of the Protestant Reformation. Rejected infant baptism, opposed taking oaths and bearing arms. Believed in a complete separation of church and state.

English reformation
English Reformation

  • Reformation in England ends with the state controlled Anglican Church.

  • Henry VIII wanted to annul his marriage from Catherine based on the fact she had born him only a girl (Mary I) and had been previously married to his brother…and he wanted to get with Anne Boleyn.

  • The Pope did not grant the divorce because Catherine was Phillip II of Spain’s Aunt and he dominated Italy at the time.

  • In 1592, Henry dismisses his lord chancellor Thomas Wolsey and replaces him with Thomas More. The new Arch Bishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, granted the divorce and Henry married Anne.

  • Anne gave him Elizabeth I. He had her executed for having an affair.

  • 1534- Parliament passes the Act of Supremacy which declares the king vs. the Pope as head of the English Church. Even though they rejected papal supremacy, the church under Henry VIII remained fundamentally Catholic in doctrine and practice.

    • He did act against the monasteries because he saw them as strongholds for the Papcy, he also needed their wealth, which he took.

    • Thomas More, refused to go along with the Act of Supremacy and was executed.

    • Most Englishmen did support their king though because they resented the wealth of the Catholic Church

English reformation 2
English Reformation 2

  • Edward VI, son of Henry VIII, succeeded him. He was young, so Thomas Cranmer ruled with/for Edward and the church became more Protestant during this period.

  • 42 Articles of faith, reflected Calvinist doctrine and allowed clergy to marry, Cranmer’s Book of Common Prayer set forth Protestant ideas of worship in the English church.

  • Mary I became Queen next, she was Catholic, and she attempted to restore the Catholic Church. This angered the English, as did her marriage to her cousin Phillip II of Spain. She persecuted Protestants during her reign, executing many, including Cranmer.

  • Elizabeth I becomes Queen, she was more concerned with national unity, than religion.

  • She sought a religious settlement- Elizabethan Settlement:

    • Act of Supremacy 1559- repealed pro Catholic laws of Mary’s reign and established the monarch as head of the Anglican Church

    • Act of Uniformity 1559- adopted a modified version of Cranmer’s Book of Common Prayer

    • 1563- 39 Articles, defines the beliefs of the Anglican Church, church was generally Protestant but governed by Bishops

    • People who disagreed with her settlement were Puritans, who did not believe it went far enough and Separatists who wanted to leave the church completely. They, along with Catholics, were persecuted and many fled England.

Counter reformation
Counter Reformation

  • Paul III, Paul IV, Pius IV and Pius V were all reformer Popes during the Catholic Reformation.

  • The Roman Catholic Inquisition began as a way to combat heresy, established a system of censorship with the Index of Prohibited Books.

  • Pope Paul III summoned the Council of Trent from 1545-1547, 1551-1552- to reaffirm and rewrite Catholic doctrine.

    • Rejected compromise with the Protestants.

    • Reaffirmed Catholic beliefs, source of Christian faith is the Bible AND church doctrine

    • Rejected justification by faith alone, restated the doctrine of the seven sacraments.

    • Reaffirmed the prayers to Saints, veneration of relics and images, as well as the doctrine of purgatory and indulgences.

    • Strengthened the authority of the Pope

    • To deal with corruption, simony was outlawed. Clergy was better educated, Latin was the language of worship but the clergy could preach in the vernacular.

  • Jesuits- establishment of religious orders

    • Ignatius Loyola- founder “The Spiritual Exercises”

    • Organized along military lines, head of the society was the general.

    • Dedicated to stopping the spread of Protestantism

    • Worked in education of the youth and in foreign missions

Wars of religion
Wars of Religion

  • Spanish King- also ruled the Netherlands, Burgundy in France, the Kingdom of the 2 Sicilia's and Sardinia in Italy.

  • Phillip II hoped to use Spanish power in support of the Catholic Church.

    • Dutch Revolt against Spanish rule, sent the Duke of Alva, who suppressed the revolt and ruled for 6 years, resulting in the execution of thousands of rebels, the revolt continued under his rule.

    • The Treaty of Westphalia of 1648 granted the Dutch their independence.

    • Spanish Armada against Elizabeth I

  • France: predominantly Catholic, but there was a conflict between the Catholics and French Calvinists/Huguenots that led to 3 decades of civil war.

    • Catherine de’ Medici became the key figure/ruler during her sons reign (Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III)

    • Open warfare between Huguenots and Catholics broke out in 1562 and ended with an uneasy truce in 1570.

    • St Bartholomew's Day Massacre- Catherine de’ Medici decided that the Huguenots must be exterminated, so she gave the signal from Paris which began the massacre of the Huguenots in Paris.

    • Henry of Navarre emerged as the Huguenot’s leader, the conflict continued and culminated in the War of the Three Henry’s (1585-1589) Henry III (king) vs. Henry of Navarre vs. Henry Duke of Guise. Henry III assassinated Henry Guise whose followers then assassinated the King leaving Henry Navarre standing.

    • He became King of France and made peace between the religious factions. He also converted to Catholicism to embrace the faith of his subjects. Cared more about political unity/nationalism.

    • 1598 Edict of Nantes- granted limited toleration to one million French Protestants/Huguenots.

30 years war
30 Years War

  • The Peace of Augsburg of 1555 brought a temporary truce to the religious conflict in the German states. (Lutherans and roman Catholics were recognized) The 30 Years War will begin as Calvinists begin to demand rights as well.

    • Bohemian Period- Ferdinand II becomes HRE, is catholic and this alarms Calvinists. They revolt in Bohemia and declared Ferdinand deposed and elected Frederick V as their ruler in the Western region of Germany.

    • Frederick V is overthrown and this period ends with a Catholic victory.

    • Danish Period- Christian IV of Denmark intervenes to support the Protestants but is defeated resulting in another Catholic victory.

    • Swedish Period- Protestant cause found a new defender in Gustavas Adolphus of Sweden- France and Sweden enter the war against the Hapsburgs making this a European war vs. a German war. This period ends with victory for the Hapsburgs and Catholics.

    • French Period- France enters the war again wanting to weaken the Hapsburgs- the 30 Years War ends with this phase and the Treaty of Westphalia (1648)

      • Dutch independence is recognized formally

      • HRE is weakened and fragmented/ Hapsburgs weakened

      • Peace of Augsburg expanded to include Calvinists

Beginning of euro exploration
Beginning of Euro Exploration

  • Motives- new trade routes to the Near East/ Asia that don’t go through the Ottoman Empire. Religion and economic reasons.

  • Technology and geographic advancements made exploration possible.

  • Prince Henry the Navigator (Portugal)

  • De Gama- sailed around the Cape of Good Hope (Portugal)

  • Columbus- discovered the New World (Spain)

  • Cortes and the Aztecs

  • Pizarro and the Incas

  • Magellan

  • LINE OF DEMARCATION- Lands to the west are Spanish, lands to the east are Portuguese.